Adversary Approaches to Political Warfare and Information Warfare Published Oct. 4, 2022 TOPIC SPONSOR: JSOU How do the approaches by Russia and China to modern political warfare, in particular the exploitation of the information environment to manipulate, coerce, and control, potentially provide a model for the U.S. to understand the nature of modern political warfare by our adversaries and counter it? “Mission Command” of national influence campaigns is difficult to operationalize. How do adversaries decide, manage, and coordinate operations or take advantage of emergent opportunities? What is their likely planning cycle for these operations? How far out are they preparing the operational environment? What tools and methods are used to coerce and control populations? What do their virtual networks look like? Can populations be inoculated against the tactics they employ? What impact do these tools and methods have on U.S. influence operations? How can the DoD disrupt malign information and activities through exposure? Crouch, Lt Col. Carrianne, "Information is power : for Russia, it is really all about defense" AWC PSP, 2020, 46 pgs. Repka, Capt. Gregory, "War of Words: Understanding and Defending against Chinese Disinformation Campaigns," SOS AUAR 2021, 7 pgs. Turner, Maj. Brett F., "Russian Disinformation: RT America and RT UK's Use of Framing on YouTube during the COVID-19 Pandemic," Air Force Fellows paper, 2021, 36 pgs. Welch, Col. Christopher M., "Russian Disinformation in Europe and Its Implications for NATO's Future Strategy," AWC PSP, 2022, 39 pgs.