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The following resources provide an introduction to some of the major learning theories for education.
Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr. Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning)
Gagne's model of instructional design is based on the information processing model of the mental events that occur when adults are presented with various stimuli and focuses on the learning outcomes and how to arrange specific instructional events to achieve those outcomes. Applying Gagne's nine-step model is an excellent way to ensure an effective and systematic learning program.
InstructionalDesign.org is designed to provide information about instructional design principles and how they relate to teaching and learning. The site provides an overview of many learning theories with accompanying reference sources. Resources on this site were created by Greg Kearsley and Richard Culatta.
David L, "Summaries of Learning Theories and Models," in Learning Theories, June 30, 2017, https://www.learning-theories.com/.
This study is intended to help AF leadership and educators better understand the importance of affective learning in the development of Airmen as life-long learners. Affective learning concerns learners' attitude, motivations, beliefs, and emotions.
Adult learning theories provide insight into how adults learn and can help instructors be more effective in their practice and more responsive to the needs of the learners they serve.
This section provides ideas and methods for various styles or modalities of teaching and learning. Each learner has a preferred style of learning which, if possible, should be addressed to make learning most effective. In addition, the subject or domain for learning can also impact which style or method of teaching might be most appropriate for producing an effective learning experience.
This teaching guide highlights the pedagogical theory presented in the book: How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School John D. Bransford, Ann L. Brown and Rodney R. Cocking, editors National Academies Press; 1st edition (September 15, 2000)
Commissioned by the National Research Council, How People Learn presents the conclusions of recent research in cognitive science, and then develops their implications for teaching and learning. The following highlights of this research may be helpful as you reflect on your own teaching practice, and how it may better enhance your students’ learning.
This essential book offers an introduction to the topic, includes twenty-three chapters by leading experts in the field, and provides the most relevant information on a range of faculty development topics including establishing and sustaining a faculty development program; the key issues of assessment, diversity, and technology; and faculty development across institutional types, career stages, and organizations.
In essence, “flipping the classroom” means that students gain first exposure to new material outside of class, usually via reading or lecture videos, and then use class time to do the harder work of assimilating that knowledge, perhaps through problem-solving, discussion, or debates.
Active learning involves teaching methods that "involve" students in active participation rather than passive absorption. Students "do something" associated with the learning task to become more engaged. With active learning, students are expected to be more responsible for their own learning (learner centered).
"Instructional design refers to the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation" (Smith & Ragan, Instructional Design, 2nd Ed, Wiley, 1999). In other words, it is the process where educators determine how best to teach a lesson or course while guided by a set of education principles.
A collection of articles addressing various aspects of instructional design.
The syllabus is a key instrument for education that can serve in multiple ways for both the students and the instructor. A good syllabus is normally essential for conducting courses in education and this article describes some the why's and how's associated with creating and using a syllabus as part of good teaching practices.
A lesson plan is a plan for learning. As is true in most activities, the quality of planning affects the quality of results. Successful executives and professional people know that the price of excellence is careful preparation.
This section provides ideas, techniques and methods for operating and teaching in the learning environment, either in the classroom or online.
Leading a small seminar group requires specific techniques and skills to support learning objectives while including all members of the group in the process.
Stanford University offers a guide for effective and engaging lectures. The best lectures, like any good talk, invite students to think imaginatively and conceptually about a significant theme or problem. Several other aspects of effective lectures are addressed including:
Smart lectures convey new terms and concepts, delineate historical context, demonstrate function, and draw complex connections between ideas. Well-organized, vibrant lectures offer efficient ways to explain important detail to large groups of diverse learners.
A great set of do's and don'ts that can help lead to more effective lectures through improved presentation methods and style. The article provides teachers with practical recommendations, tips and techniques to develop a style of presentation that connects with students and helps promote learning through improved communication.
This section provides teaching resources in the form of tools, tips, templates and methods to support various teaching activities.
The AACS provides 16 rubrics, available for download, that address a wide variety of commonly assessed intellectual and practical skills, personal and social responsibilities, and integrative and applied learning.
This set of tips for building multiple choice assessments provides excellent guidance for developing questions that more accurately determine learning success with regard to the higher levels of thinking.
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