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Stage 3. Write Drafts

Writing an Essay Title


Writing an Effective Title (University of Minnesota). Presents strategies for writing effective titles for written assignments.


Writing Topic Sentences & Sentence Structure


Topic Sentence and Signposting (Harvard University). Discusses topic sentences and signposts (change in the argument's direction) for clear in writing.  


Practice in Composing Effective Topic Sentences (ThoughtCo.com). Presents three paragraphs with the topic sentence removed, and prompts you to draft a topic sentence. Original topic sentences presented at the bottom of the webpage.  


Strategies for Sentence Variation (Purdue OWL). Presents methods for adding sentence variety and complexity to writing, including general tips for varying structure, a discussion of sentence types, and specific parts of speech that can aid in sentence variety.


Sentence Combinations and Word Choices (Ohio State University). Focused on clarity, this webpage provides guidance for fixing unclear language, including combining sentences, reducing a clause to a phrase, and reducing a phrase to a single word.


Correcting Common Errors in Sentence Structure (Ohio State University). This webpage helps you identify and repair comma splices, sentence fragments, and run-ons, which will deliver clear and precise writing.


Fixing Problems That Lead to Awkward Sentences (Northwestern University). Practice exercise (with answers and explanations) helping students to correct awkward sentences resulting from too many words, not the right words, and incorrect sentence structures.


Eliminating Wordiness (University of Kansas). Provides examples for writing with concision and clarity.


Develop a Thesis: Refer to Stage 2. Plan the Essay & Develop Ideas in order to access resources on drafting, evaluating, and revising thesis statements.


Writing an Introduction


Invest in Your Introduction (University of Wisconsin – Madison). Explains how to write an explicit and detailed introduction that shows the richness and complexity of your work.

Introductions (Ohio State University, Center for the Study of Teaching & Writing). Presents tips for writing introductions.


Preparing to Write an Introduction (University of Richmond Writing Center). Discusses flaws in writing introductions, types of introductions to avoid, and ideas for developing effective introductions.   


Developing Paragraphs


Paragraphs (Ohio State University, Center for the Study of Teaching & Writing). Presents a general discussion of developing paragraphs.


Paragraphs & Paragraphing (Purdue OWL). Discusses the creation of understandable and coherent paragraphs, including elements of a paragraph, topic sentence, development, knowing when to start a new paragraph, and rules of paragraphing.


Improving Your Paper by Writing Structured Paragraphs (University of Wisconsin – Madison). Presents examples of well-written paragraphs with explanations.


Writing Effective Paragraphs (University of Richmond Writing Center). Discusses how to draft unified, coherent, and well-developed paragraphs.


Summarizing & Paraphrasing (Ohio State University). Defines summary and paraphrase, when to use them, and provides samples of each.    


Paragraphs and Topic Sentences (Indiana University – Bloomington). Discusses the organization of a paragraph and its three parts.


Effective Transitions


Writing Transitions (Purdue OWL). Presents transition strategies to connect paragraphs into a unified whole.


Transitional Devices (Purdue OWL). Presents specific transitional devices to connect paragraphs into a unified whole.


Transitional Word & Phrases (University of Richmond Writing Center). Provides a list of transitional words.


Writing a Conclusion


Conclusions (Ohio State University, Center for the Study of Teaching & Writing). Presents tips for writing conclusions.


Conclusions (UNC – Chapel Hill). Explains the functions of conclusions, offers strategies for writing effective conclusions and suggests approaches to avoid.


Writing Effective Conclusions (University of Richmond Writing Center). Brief discussion of the types of conclusions to avoid and ideas for developing effective conclusions.


Make Your Last Words Count (Conclusion) (University of Wisconsin – Madison). Discusses how an effective conclusion connects the paper's findings to a larger context, suggests the implications of findings and ideas for further research, and revisits main ideas. The webpage also gives examples of well-written conclusions.




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