The views and opinions expressed or implied in WBY are those of the authors and should not be construed as carrying the official sanction of the Department of Defense, Air Force, Air Education and Training Command, Air University, or other agencies or departments of the US government or their international equivalents.

The Integrated Resilience Program at Malmstrom AFB, Montana, 2019-2020

Wild Blue Yonder --

In response to General David Goldfein’s call to fight “an adversary that is killing more of our airmen than any enemy on the planet,”1 Headquarters Air Force implemented Operation THURSDAY to address rising suicide numbers. From 1 August to 15 September 2019, this resilience tactical pause (RTP) sought to empower Airmen at the lowest level to strengthen “connectedness, reinforce support to CSAF Focus Area #1... Squadrons!, [and] eliminate barriers and stigma to care and collect tactical-level feedback to improve support to our Total Force Airmen and families.”2 With the support of helping agencies at Air Force installations across the globe, command teams would tailor the RTP to fit the needs of their individual units. It encouraged leaders to use this time to meet annual resilience training requirements and facilitate small group discussions to “increase unit cohesion, trust and confidence in Command Teams while soliciting feedback to evolve our approach to decrease suicide and increase the well-being of our formation.”3 Air Force leadership emphasized this was not a graded assignment, but a critical look at what each unit could do to improve its Airmen’s resiliency.4

The 341st Missile Wing (341 MW) at Malmstrom AFB successfully completed General Goldfein’s RTP, but the program as a whole was less effective. Resilience training assistants (RTA) and master resiliency trainers (MRT) consistently battled against a wing-wide culture that resisted resilience training. Ultimately, 341 MW’s resilience program only works if commanders embrace it. Creating resilient Airmen necessitates making it a part of the wing’s culture.

Development of the Air Force’s Resilience Program

The USAF’s resilience program built off its earlier suicide prevention efforts. In June 1996, Gen Ronald B. Fogleman, the 15th CSAF (1994-97), directed an Air Force-level Integrated Product Team (IPT) to review suicide in the Air Force following a rash of highly-publicized military suicides within the Department of Defense.5 In response, the IPT developed the Air Force Suicide Prevention program (AFSPP) that consisted of 11 initiatives for installation level suicide-prevention. This community-based effort promoted awareness of risk factors related to suicide, educated the Air Force community on mental health services, and aimed to reduce stigma related to help-seeking behavior. Primarily, it required leadership at all levels to actively support and engage in AFSPP initiatives such as incorporating suicide prevention into all levels of professional military education and stand up installation-level programs that created “a comprehensive and coordinated plan for integrating community outreach and prevention programs, including suicide prevention, and to eliminate duplication, overlap, and gaps in delivering prevention services.”6 The AFSPP appeared to work; from 1997 to 2008 the USAF witnessed a decline in suicides among its Airmen.7

The AFSPP, however, collided with the Global War on Terror’s high operations tempo in the Middle East and central Asia. In the fall of 2010, Lt Gen Charles B. Green, the Air Force Surgeon General, stood up the Airman Resilience Training (ART) program to combat the stressors and trauma of combat. This pre- and post-deployment education sought “to enhance the resilience and peak performance of Airmen, strengthening mind, body, and spirit using a skills-based approach, providing information on when, where, and how to seek resources if needed.”8 These briefings focused on the four “Cs” (check, control, connect, and confidence) and sought to provide Airmen with the skills to cope with deployment and facilitate a smooth reentry into family and work life upon return.9

ART worked hand-in-glove-with Comprehensive Airman Fitness (CAF), a tiered program that focused on Airmen’s mental, physical, social, and spiritual health. Launched on 30 March 2011, CAF was a wide-ranging education and training program that provided “the tools to build and sustain a culture of comprehensively fit Airmen.” 10 As a result, the Air Force folded resilience training into all aspects of its military education. It also included CAF principles in all levels of professional military education and senior spouse orientations. Finally, units trained their own personnel to become RTAs, in-house specialists on CAF principles, before sending their most qualified instructors to the MRT course to learn “In-depth academic instruction designed to produce subject matter experts in core resilience skills.”11 Upon completion, these MRTs provided all CAF training at their home units. Combined, the Air Force believed ART and CAF could train its Airmen “to withstand, recover and/or grow in the face of stressors and changing demands.”12 With the foundation set, wings throughout the Air Force continued to build and refine their resilience programs.

The 341st Missile Wing’s Resilience Program

Led by Lori L. Muzzana, the 341st Missile Wing Community Support coordinator, the wing’s integrated resilience program was a multi-faceted effort that provided “Airmen with knowledge, skills, and tools that support resilience” and helped “build foundational life skills that will allow them to thrive personally and professionally.”13 While the resilience program included the community action board and the helping agencies in the community action team (CAT), two organizations that identified community problems and worked through their solutions, along with a Violence Prevention program that focused “on non-clinical and primary prevention of interpersonal and self-directed violence” wing leadership placed resilience skill training at the forefront of its efforts.14

Muzzana looked for people who could lean into a unit’s most pressing issues and provide peer-to-peer mentorship. Muzzana reached out to unit leadership “to provide us with somebody that they would like to have that [resilience] skill set and bring them back to the unit…who can mentor [the] troop[s].”15For example, Capt Cameron J. Owen, the 341st Medical Group TRICARE Operations and Patient Administration Flight commander, got involved with the program because he viewed resiliency as a professional development tool; the better the person, the more effective the mission.16 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew in the 341st Security Support Squadron jumped at the opportunity to become an RTA after experiencing a string of personal traumas early in her Air Force career. Not only did she learn skills that she could use to help her fellow Airmen, but this training also helped her understand and navigate her own turbulent experience.17 When it came to selecting quality RTAs, Muzzana believed “you’re going to learn from your peers. Walk the walk. Those individuals, if they see you acting in a certain manner, it’s easier for them to buy into that skill set.”18

The RTA training program provided the foundation for the wing’s entire resilience mission. Muzzana had to create a deep bench of RTAs that squadrons could use to conduct resilience training at the unit level. As a result, she developed and managed the wing’s three-day RTA training program. The training sessions occurred thrice yearly and followed a standard script. For example, from 16-18 October 2019, Muzzana held an RTA training session. Facilitated by Brook Gerard, an MRT, and five RTAs, over the course of three days they taught 12 prospective RTAs the Air Force resilience program’s material and how to use it on base. The first day and a half introduced the class to the resilience skill sets such as “Gratitude: look for the good” and “Mindfulness: be present,” and then used day three to teach back what the students learned to the MRT and RTAs. Once complete, the Airman entered into a statement of understanding with their commander, and then Muzzana added them to her roster of RTAs who could conduct resilience training on the installation.19

While Muzzana did not manage the MRT program since they were Air Force assets, they played a pivotal role in fulfilling the wing’s resilience training requirement. Since at least one MRT was required to oversee First Term Airman Course (FTAC) training (RTAs were not permitted to teach an entire course by themselves), she would send experienced RTAs to the MRT course at Maxwell AFB, Alabama to learn how to facilitate the wing’s annual training requirements.20 Upon arrival, attendees entered an intensive training environment where they learned the equivalent of three weeks of material in five days. The first day and a half focused on resilience’s scientific background, followed by a re-education on the skill sets, and concluded with two days of practice instruction to the class. By the end of the week, Airmen went from being a resilience instructor, someone who taught the material, to a facilitator. Once complete, military members received a special experience identifier code so their MRT designation followed them throughout their career.21

While RTAs and MRTs had an array of opportunities to teach resilience skills on Malmstrom, the bulk of it occurred at the wing’s FTAC.22 This training was identical to what RTAs received at their course, however, MRTs and RTAs taught all eight lessons in one day.23 According to Airman Mayhew, approaching FTAC students as one of their peers was the most effective way to get them to engage with her and the material. Junior enlisted Airmen like herself faced different demands on their personal and professional lives compared to Non-Commissioned Officers (NCO), Company Grade Officers (CGO), or commanders and chiefs. Mayhew learned to take her own adversities and incorporate them into her teachings.24 Additionally, RTAs and MRTs conducted resilience instruction in plain clothes, not in uniform. This was an effective method to get Airmen to ask for help. Airman Mayhew recalled a situation where an Airman and single mother reached out to her and said she was struggling to juggle being a defender in the missile fields and having a child at home. Mayhew referred her to a First Sergeant that she trusted and helped this young Airman through her issue. To Mayhew, this one-on-one approach was often the most effective way to help fellow Airmen deal with their problems “Because, otherwise she might not have done that if she was afraid to talk to someone higher [in rank].” She continued, “Just that feeling…of…I can talk to someone because it’s person to person, not person to rank’” made all the difference.25

At the end of an FTAC resilience training session, students filled out feedback forms critiquing the MRT’s and RTA’s effectiveness. Each survey contained a pre-training self-assessment where Airmen noted on a 1-5 scale their own knowledge of and skills regarding resiliency, along with a post-training evaluation where they recorded what they learned during the session. In almost every instance, students’ self-reported resiliency skills improved after receiving instruction and provided constructive feedback on how to improve the class for later iterations.26 RTAs and MRTs believed the feedback provided them an opportunity to refine their craft for future classes.27

The wing’s resilience program set the installation up for success when the CSAF ordered his wings to enact the RTP. Muzzana’s bench of experienced RTAs and MRTs were prepared to step in and facilitate the wing-wide resilience training in an attempt to stymie suicide throughout the Air Force and teach Airmen much-needed skills to deal with the hardships of a military life.

The Resilience Tactical Pause

When 341 MW stood down to conduct the RTP, it encountered an installation-wide population that appeared to be largely resilient.28 But this did not mean that Airmen on Malmstrom did not have problems. Central Montana was often a difficult transition for people who came from large metropolitan areas.29 Others made the best of it, turning to the outdoors to go hiking and snow skiing, either with friends or on trips through Outdoor Recreation.30 Inevitably, the newness wore off and after exhausting the outdoors and the few restaurants and bars in town, lonely Airmen reported they were left with nothing to do but sit in the dorms.31

The wing’s 24-7 nuclear mission compounded these off-duty stressors. Security forces’ work schedule in the missile fields kept Airmen apart from their families, making it difficult for young Airmen to maintain relationships.32 Others described topside security as a tedious, boring job.33 Tedium, combined with rotations at the missile alert facilities, helped to create a toxic culture within the Missile Security Forces Squadrons.34 While some Airmen merely griped about these hardships, even more raised their hands and asked for help. One group commander was pleased with the uptick in helping agency referrals because he believed this increase represented a greater trust in leadership.35 Despite these slow, yet steady improvements, Airmen’s mental health within 341 MW continued to be a problem, especially when it came to suicide.

The wing’s suicide numbers did not outpace the wider Air Force, but it was still very much a reality on Malmstrom.36 Of the completed suicides, all Airmen were undergoing personal or professional hardships. In every instance, the suicide event review team suggested developing a plan of action that taught Airmen resilience skills to combat the personal and professional stressors that led to suicide.37 Lori Muzzana agreed: “We have found through the CAT team that a lot of our folks come in with lack of coping skills. They just don’t have the coping skills to deal when times get tough.”38 Airman Mayhew believed resilience skills could help Airmen strike a balance between big and little adversities such as managing a divorce or having a sick child.39 While no one believed the resilience skills training would be a cure all, Captain Owen still thought that “what we do for resiliency is the best vehicle that we have to do our small part in this problem.”40

After Col Jennifer K. Reeves, the 341 MW commander (341 MW/CC), received the orders from General Goldfein, the wing moved quickly to plan and execute its own RTP. On 2 August 2019, she directed group and squadron leadership to brainstorm possible RTP sessions for leadership to discuss and wanted to take a methodical approach to planning the tactical pause.41 Commanders pulled their training together quickly. On 3 September 2019 the 341st Maintenance Group (341 MXG) conducted its RTP. That morning, Col Nathan Mitchell, the 341 MXG/CC, held an all call at the base auditorium where the group listened to former Detroit Lions’ quarterback Eric Hipple speak about dealing with depression, resilience, and hope following his son’s suicide at the age of 15.42 Afterwards, each squadron held its own event; the 341st Munitions Squadron (341 MUNS) held a potluck at Giant Springs State Park before breaking out into small groups to discuss a wide range of resilience-related topics like stress, connectedness, and dealing with rejection. After the small group exercise personnel participated in a morale-building event such as a trail run or fishing.43

While each unit tackled the RTP in a way that best suited their respective units, nothing seemed more effective than the peer-to-peer breakout sessions throughout the ranks. For CGOs in 341 MDG, these sessions allowed front-line managers to discuss workplace issues amongst peers. As the RTA for this session, Captain Owen believed it was important to discuss issues most applicable to them. In this case, “how do we connect with our young Airmen” to “help their resiliency?”44 Likewise, sessions among lower enlisted Airmen in 341 SSPTS provided them an opportunity to vent their frustrations about life as a defender. According to Airman Mayhew, with no NCOs or officers in the room, her peers felt comfortable discussing things that eating away at morale or creating hardships in their daily lives. She was well aware there was nothing that her leadership could do to change the fundamental requirements of their mission, but Mayhew realized the benefit of these sessions was for Airmen “to get stuff off their chest.”45 These peer sessions provided leaders feedback they could integrate into their squadrons.46 By the week of 8 September 2020, the entire wing completed the RTP.47

Does the Resilience Program Work?

While the RTP met General Goldfein’s intent, the wing’s resilience program as a whole was far less effective. One reason stemmed from AFI 90-5001 itself. According to Muzzana, the AFI said, “’All will receive resilience training.’ It doesn’t say what that looks like” or “how many lessons are to be taught.”48 Since she had “no teeth” to force commanders to conduct resilience training, they could conduct as little as one resilience session a year and meet the AFI’s requirements.49 As a result, her RTAs and MRTs did not have enough opportunities to keep their skills sharp.50 Muzzana created the “Resilience Minute” at the weekly wing staff meeting as an opportunity for them to conduct training outside of their squadrons.51 This instruction occurred twice a month and provided wing leaders their resilience training. This led Captain Owen to wonder if there was an exposure bias among leadership.52 Just because leaders were receiving resilience training regularly did not mean their Airmen were. Given Muzzana’s lack of authority implementing the program and dearth of training opportunities for RTAs and MRTs, the Integrated Resilience program fell flat on Malmstrom as soon as the USAF published the updated AFI in January 2019.

Airmen’s resistance to resilience training appeared to be another reason the program floundered. During 341 SSPTS’s RTP, Airman Mayhew facilitated a small group session where a speaker shared his story. And at the end, he said, “No offense but I think resiliency’s crap. It doesn’t exist.”53 Captain Owen pointed to a similar problem in his RTP session at 341 MDG.54 MRTs also believed Airmen perceived resiliency as a “box checking” endeavor. It was something that interrupted an Airman’s day and forced them to spend time and energy away from their job or complete the task on their off time. For them, resiliency was something they had to do “because somebody told my boss from their boss from their boss from their boss it has to be done.”55 Muzzana believed some commanders in the wing had a similar perspective, but it came from a position of benign neglect. For example, when she reached out to the RTAs and MRTs to ask how many were involved in the RTP, she learned about half were running it for their groups, but some responded with “‘we don’t even know what you’re talking about.’” Muzzana chalked this up to commanders’ reactionary mindsets: “They don’t reach for something until they’re in crisis mode.”56 This reactive, instead of proactive, approach undercut the resilience program’s very intent.

What would make the wing’s resilience program more effective? First off, RTAs and MRTs believed they must be vocal advocates for Integrated Resilience if it is to succeed on Malmstrom AFB. Captain Owen noted his own shortcoming in evangelizing resilience within the medical group. He said, “I have jurisdiction within my own flight and there’s nothing that’s stopping me. I need to take responsibility in that.”57 Airman Mayhew concurred.58 Second, resilience must become part of the wing’s standard battle rhythm. Captain Owen pointed to 341 MDG’s trusted care journey to become a high reliability organization. As a result, the medical group worked patient safety stories into their daily meetings and has a continued process improvement board with each month’s theme for reference. People talked about patient safety ad nauseam until it became ingrained in the group’s culture. Owen believed that “if we’re trying to increase resiliency in people it can’t be once a quarter I hear a little five minute snippet of a cool idea.”59 Essentially, Muzzana and company needed their own “got milk?” campaign.60

Ultimately, measuring the resilience program’s effectiveness was not easy. While no one in the program could identify a clear metric to say “yes, the wing’s efforts to build resilient Airmen was effective,” they all agreed on the metric no one should use: suicide. “We can’t say, ‘well people aren’t killing themselves so it must be working’…we don’t know what external factors may be impacting resilience of our Airmen,” said Colonel Reeves. She continued, “We take a lot of feedback from various levels of leadership and we use that to get a sense of what’s going on. Then we do our best to make common sense decisions and implement what we believe might work.”61 In short, building resilience among Malmstrom’s Airmen would always be a work in progress.

Conclusion

The 341 MW resilience program built upon the Air Force’s earlier suicide prevention efforts. As the US escalated contingency operations during the Global War on Terror, the Air Force realized its Airmen were unable to deal with the stressors and trauma of combat. As a result, it developed a resilience program that taught its personnel the skills necessary to help them navigate a life in the military. At Malmstrom AFB, RTAs and MRTs implemented the Air Force’s resilience program and helped facilitate the RTP. While the wing met the RTP’s intent, the resilience program as a whole was less successful; RTAs and MRTs consistently battled against a wing-wide culture that resisted resilience training. In response, they advocated for additional training time and commanders’ buy-in with the hope of making resilience part of the wing’s culture.

Dr. Troy A. Hallsell

Dr. Troy A. Hallsell is the Historian of the 341st Missile Wing, Malmstrom AFB, Montana.

Notes

1 Brian Everstine, “USAF Orders Stand-Down to Combat Rising Suicide Rate,” Air Force Magazine, 1 August 2019, https://www.airforcemag.com/.

2 Lt Gen Brian T. Kelley, EXORD, subject: OPERATION THURSDAY ORDER 01, 30 July 2019.

3 Lt Gen Brian T. Kelley, OPERATION THURSDAY ORDER 01.

4 Lt Gen Brian T. Kelley, OPERATION THURSDAY ORDER 01; See also Instruction, subject: Resilience Tactical Pause (RTP) Playbook, 2019; and Gen David L. Goldein and CMSAF Kaleth O. Wright, letter, subject: Expectations of a Successful Command Team, 2019.

5 Philip Shenon, “His Medals Questioned, Top Admiral Kills Himself,” New York Times, 17 May 96, https://www.nytimes.com/; Briefing, Lt Gen Charles H. Roadman II, subject: Air Force, Suicide Prevention, and the IPT: Corona South, 1 February 1997; and History, Air Force Medical Operations Agency, 1 July 1996 to 31 December 1996, 95-97.

6 Rajeev Ramchand, et al., The War Within: Preventing Suicide in the U.S. Military (Santa Monica: The RAND Corporation, 2011), 73-75.

7 Kerry L. Knox, et al, “The US Air Force Suicide Prevention Program: Implications for Public Health Policy,” American Journal of Public Health Vol 100, No. 12 (December 2010): 2457-63; Maj Craig S. MacLeod, “Mental Health Care—Can the USAF do More to Encourage Help Seeking Behavior?,” (MA Thesis, Air University, 1998), 19-24; and Ramchand, et al, The War Within, 73-79.

8 Quoted in Gabriella C. Gonzalez, et al, An Evaluation of the Implementation and Perceived Utility of Airman Resilience Training Program (Santa Monica: the RAND Corporation, 2014), 3.

9 Gabriella C. Gonzalez, et al, An Evaluation of the Implementation and Perceived Unity.

10 Air Force Instruction 90-506, Comprehensive Airman Fitness (CAF), 2 April 14, 9.

11 Comprehensive Airman Fitness (CAF), 10.

12 Gonzalez, et al, Implementation and Perceived Utility of Airman Resilience Training, 1-6. Quote on page 4; and Comprehensive Airman Fitness (CAF), 9-10.

13 Air Force Instruction 90-5001, Integrated Resilience, 25 January 2019, 23.

14 Integrated Resilience, 5. See also Notes, Margaret “Em” Rhodes-Fannin (violence prevention integrator, 341st Missile Wing) conversation with Troy A. Hallsell, 9 December 2019; Notes, Capt Melissa Matu’u (341st Operations Group) conversation with Troy A. Hallsell, 13 December 2019; Briefing, Margaret “Em” Rhodes-Fannin, subject: Violence Prevention 2019 Annual Training, 7 May 2019; Plan, 60-Minute Workshop: Violence Prevention 2019, 7 May 2019; and Margaret “Em” Rhodes-Fannin, After Action Report for 341st Missile Wing Suicide Prevention Awareness Month (September 2019), 6 November 2019.

15 Lori L. Muzzana interview by the author.

16 Capt Cameron J. Owen (TOPA flight commander, 341st Medical Group) interview by the author, 11 February 2020.

17 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew (341st Security Support Squadron) interview by the author, 28 February 2020.

18 Lori L. Muzzana interview by the author.

19 Integrated Resilience, 17 & 23-24; Lori L. Muzzana interview by the author; Lori L. Muzzana to Malmstrom_All_DDG, email, subject: New Resilience Training Assistant (RTA) course - Registration Now Open, 6 December 2019; Schedule, RTA Training Schedule,” undated; Roster, RTA Training 16-18 October 2019, undated; Guide, Air Force Resilience Training First Term Airmen Course Participant Guide, undated; Survey, Via Strengths Profile, undated; and Troy A. Hallsell to Curtis C. Hunt, director of staff, 341st Missile Wing, statement of understanding, subject: Resilience Trainer Assistant (RTA): Statement of Understanding, 21 October 2019.

20 Lori L. Muzzana interview by the author. The course was open to SSgts to SMSgts on the enlisted side, Lieutenants to Majors for officers, and GS-09s or higher for civilians.

21 Integrated Resilience, 25 January 2019, 23-24; Lori L. Muzzana interview by the author; and SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew interview by the author.

22 Integrated Resilience, 25 January 2019, 24.

23 Guide, Air Force Resilience Training First Term Airmen Course Participant Guide, undated.

24 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew interview by the author.

25 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew interview by the author.

26 Survey, FTAC Training Feedback, 11 September 2019; Survey, FTAC Training Feedback, 25 September 2019; and Survey, FTAC Training Feedback,” 20 January 2020.

27 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew interview by the author.

28 Carra Sims, et al., “2017 Air Force Community Feedback Tool: Key Results for Malmstrom Air Force Base (Draft),” (Santa Monica: the RAND Corporation, 2018), 5-12.

29 SrA David Narwan (341st Comptroller Squadron) interview by the author, 27 November 2018.

30 A1C Marianne Adeciam, (341st Comptroller Squadron) interview by the author, 28 November 2018; SrA Joseph Morales, (341st Missile Wing) interview by the author, 28 January 2019.

31 SrA David Narwan interview by the author.

32 Troy A. Hallsell, “Reorganizing Missile Security at Malmstrom AFB: 341st Security Forces Group and the Missile Security Operating Concept,” Wild Blue Yonder Digital Journal, 27 April 2020,https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/.

33 SrA James G. Bell (341st Missile Wing) interview by the author, 11 April 2019.

34 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew interview by the author.

35 Troy A. Hallsell, “Reorganizing Missile Security at Malmstrom AFB.”

36 History, 341st Missile Wing, 1 January – 31 December 2016, 28 September 2017, 93-94; History, 341st Missile Wing, 1 January – 31 December 2017, 17 April 2019, 146; History, 341st Missile Wing, 1 January – 31 December 2018, 18 July 2019, 161; History, 341st Missile Wing, 1 January – 31 December 2019, 27 February 2020, 122; Col Jennifer K. Reeves to Malmstrom_All_DDG, email, subject: Death of Our Airman, 15 January 2020, and Press Release, subject: Malmstrom grieves the loss of a defender,”15 January 2020.

37 Briefing, subject: Suicide Event Review Team, February 2017; Briefing, subject: Suicide Event Review Team, 1 April 2017; Briefing, subject: Suicide Event Review Team, 7 December 2017; Briefing, subject: Suicide Event Review Team, 10 December 2018; Briefing, subject: Suicide Event Review Team, 13 December 2019; and Briefing, subject: Suicide Event Review Team, 28 January 2019.

38 Lori L. Muzzana interview by the author.

39 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew interview by the author.

40 Capt Cameron J. Owen interview by the author.

41 Col Jennifer K. Reeves to 341 MW Group Commanders, email, subject: FW: Resilience Tactical Pause, 2 August 2019.

42 “About,” https://www.erichipple.com/.

43 Lt Col Scott P. Schlegelmilch, commander 341st Missile Maintenance Squadron to Maj Marvin J. Hinkson, commander, 341st Munitions Squadron and Maj Michael D. Bergeron, commander, 741st Maintenance Squadron, email, subject: RE: 341 MUNS 3 Sep Resilience Tactical Pause Plan, 12 September 2019; Col Nathan B. Mitchell, commander, 341st Maintenance Group to Col Jennifer K. Reeves, commander, 341st Missile Wing, email, subject: MXG Resiliency Tactical Pause (RTP) Schedule, 15 August 2020; and Maj Marvin J. Hinkson, commander, 341st Munitions Squadron to CMSgt Eryn C. McElroy, command chief, 341st Missile Wing, email, subject: 341 MUNS RTP Feedback, 12 September 2019. See also Briefing, 341st Security Forces Squadron, subject: Resilience Tactical Pause, August 2019.

44 Capt Cameron J. Owen interview by the author.

45 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew interview by the author.

46 Maj Marvin J. Hinkson, commander, 341st Munitions Squadron to CMSgt Eryn C. McElroy, command chief, 341st Missile Wing, email, subject: 341 MUNS RTP Feedback, 12 September 2019.

47 Maj Robert R. Fonnesbeck, executive officer, 341st Missile Wing, to Col Jennifer K. Reeves, email, subject: Consolidated WAR 16 August 2019, 16 August 2019; Maj Robert R. Fonnesbeck, to Col Jennifer K. Reeves, email, subject: Consolidated WAR 23 August 2019, 23 August 2019; Maj Robert R. Fonnesbeck, report, subject: WAR: 6 September, 6 September 2019; Maj Robert R. Fonnesbeck, report, subject: WAR: 13 September 2019, 13 September 2019; Maj Robert R. Fonnesbeck, report, subject: WAR: 20 September 2019, 20 September 2019; and SrA Tristan Truesdell, “Kindness Rocks: MDG Spreads Kindness in Unusual Ways,” 9 October 2019, https://www.afgsc.af.mil/.

48 Lori L. Muzzana interview by the author.

49 Lori L. Muzzana interview by the author; and Integrated Resilience, 22.

50 Capt Cameron J. Owen interview by the author.

51 Lori L. Muzzana interview by the author.

52 Capt Cameron J. Owen interview by the author.

53 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew interview by the author.

54 Capt Cameron J. Owen interview by the author.

55 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew interview by the author.

56 Lori L. Muzzana interview by the author.

57 Capt Cameron J. Owen interview by the author.

58 SrA Elizabeth M. Mayhew interview by the author.

59 Capt Cameron J. Owen interview by the author.

60 Capt Cameron J. Owen interview by the author; and “Got Milk? How the iconic campaign came to be, 25 years ago,” Fast Company, 13 June 2018, https://www.fastcompany.com/.

61 Col Jennifer K. Reeves to the author, email, subject: RE: HO RFI: Resilience Special Study Q & A, 18 April 2020.

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