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The following resources provide an introduction to some of the major learning theories for education.
Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr. Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning).
Gagne's model of instructional design is based on the information processing model of the mental events that occur when adults are presented with various stimuli and focuses on the learning outcomes and how to arrange specific instructional events to achieve those outcomes. Applying Gagne's nine-step model is an excellent way to ensure an effective and systematic learning program.
InstructionalDesign.org is designed to provide information about instructional design principles and how they relate to teaching and learning. The site provides an overview of many learning theories with accompanying reference sources. Resources on this site were created by Greg Kearsley and Richard Culatta.
An overview of many different learning theories, including recommendations of additional resources for each theory.
This study is intended to help AF leadership and educators better understand the importance of affective learning in the development of Airmen as life-long learners. Affective learning concerns learners' attitude, motivations, beliefs, and emotions.
Adult learning theories provide insight into how adults learn and can help instructors be more effective in their practice and more responsive to the needs of the learners they serve.
This section provides ideas and methods for various styles or modalities of teaching and learning. Each learner has a preferred style of learning which, if possible, should be addressed to make learning most effective. In addition, the subject or domain for learning can also impact which style or method of teaching might be most appropriate for producing an effective learning experience.
This teaching guide highlights the pedagogical theory presented in the book How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School, John D. Bransford, Ann L. Brown and Rodney R. Cocking, editors National Academies Press; 1st edition (September 15, 2000).
Commissioned by the National Research Council, How People Learn presents the conclusions of recent research in cognitive science, and then develops their implications for teaching and learning. The following highlights of this research may be helpful as you reflect on your own teaching practice, and how it may better enhance your students’ learning.
Classroom assessments fall into three categories—summative, diagnostic, and formative. Summative assessment occurs at the end of a unit or course of study and is therefore an insufficient tool to maximize student learning. Diagnostic and formative assessments, on the other hand, offer descriptive feedback along the way. In light of these categories, authors McTighe and O'Connor consider several assessment and grading practices that can enhance teaching and learning. Teachers should use summative assessments to frame meaningful performance goals, show criteria and models in advance, assess before teaching, offer appropriate choices, provide feedback early and often, encourage self-assessment and goal setting, and allow new evidence of achievement to replace old evidence.
In essence, “flipping the classroom” means that students gain first exposure to new material outside of class, usually via reading or lecture videos, and then use class time to do the harder work of assimilating that knowledge, perhaps through problem-solving, discussion, or debates.
Active learning involves teaching methods that "involve" students in active participation rather than passive absorption. Students "do something" associated with the learning task to become more engaged. With active learning, students are expected to be more responsible for their own learning (learner centered).
"Instructional design refers to the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation" (Smith & Ragan, Instructional Design, 2nd Ed, Wiley, 1999). In other words, it is the process where educators determine how best to teach a lesson or course while guided by a set of education principles.
A collection of resources on the learning concepts and theories of instructional design.
A collection of articles addressing various aspects of instructional design.
The syllabus is a key instrument for education that can serve in multiple ways for both the students and the instructor. A good syllabus is normally essential for conducting courses in education and this article describes some the why's and how's associated with creating and using a syllabus as part of good teaching practices.
This section provides ideas, techniques and methods for operating and teaching in the learning environment, either in the classroom or online.
Leading a small seminar group requires specific techniques and skills to support learning objectives while including all members of the group in the process.
Stanford University offers a guide for effective and engaging lectures. The best lectures, like any good talk, invite students to think imaginatively and conceptually about a significant theme or problem.
This section provides teaching resources in the form of tools, tips, templates and methods to support various teaching activities.
The AACS provides 16 rubrics, available for download, that address a wide variety of commonly assessed intellectual and practical skills, personal and social responsibilities, and integrative and applied learning.
This set of tips for building multiple choice assessments provides excellent guidance for developing questions that more accurately determine learning success with regard to the higher levels of thinking.
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