This article examines, first, Military-Civil Fusion’s origins and organizational framework, along with its execution today under President Xi Jinping. The analysis documents key economic and political interactions among MCF’s various stakeholders. Additionally, the article uses as an example the participation one State-Owned Enterprise (SOE) in MCF to highlight the technological force multipliers that China gains. In doing so, I describe the challenges to MCF’s implementation and contend that MCF is a complex military and economic enterprise requiring greater attention by the Department of Defense.
This article provides a recommended definition of lawfare, contrasts the United States’ and China’s use of lawfare in the South China Sea, and discusses potential options for the United States’ strategic legitimization and operationalization of lawfare.
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