The authors contend that steps must be taken to establish a broader multilateral approach to conducting sensitive reconnaissance operations (SRO). Partnering with other nations to embed personnel will increase these missions’ legitimacy and send a stronger, more unified message regarding our
As the Taliban rolled into Kabul on 15 August 2021 on motorcycles and in stolen Humvees, they clearly did not fear the one thing that had kept them at bay for years: air strikes. US forces had withdrawn; even “over-¬the-¬horizon” US air support had ceased—and the Afghan Air
The current Arctic security environment is poorly characterized. In the past few years, it has been termed “a return to great-power competition” and now is oscillating around discussions of hybrid threats or gray-zone warfare. Whatever the term, these are methods and means designed to
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The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue was formed in 2007 as a minilateral initiative between the big four democracies of the Indo-Pacific region: India, Australia, Japan, and the United States. While the dialogue displayed a lot of potential between the four nations at the time of its inception, it
Strategic competition between the United States and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) for economic opportunities and political influence in the developing world has been compared to Cold War competition for the “Third World” between the United States and the Soviet Union,
Since 2001, low-observable aircraft have grown in capabilities and numbers. Stealth has relied on the unique low-observable characteristics of the platforms coupled with tactics that take advantage of those characteristics. Air superiority will likely be localized in the future and grow wider while
China’s Belt and Road Initiative continues to be a source of debate across the international community. Some foreign policy experts contend it is a means for China to establish an alternative to the existing liberal international order. While it is certain to provide some positive outcomes to
John H. Herz describes security dilemmas as those that occur when one state’s actions to increase its security threaten the security of others and hence cause a reciprocatory effect. The effect has a higher likelihood of occurring when the intentions of the prior states are either
The intensification of strategic competition between the United States and China and Russia—reminiscent of the Cold War era—is changing geopolitical equations across the globe. However, unlike the Cold War era, strategic competition is unfurling in a hitherto unknown multipolar,
This article indicates that the Chinese air force progressed considerably toward building and fielding a formidable defense/offense force, assumed responsibilities that accompany the projection of national power in the Pacific region, and can resist airborne invasion, protecting aerospace
The article concludes that the US Marine Corps (USMC) will win these future fights if it builds regional alliances and employs widely dispersed, self-contained force laydowns to counter Chinese mass and confound its targeting systems. The USMC must continue to accelerate its efforts to shorten its
This article presents People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) incursions into Taiwan’s air defense identification zone (ADIZ) from 1 to 4 October 2021 as a case study in People’s Liberation Army (PLA) psychological operations. During this four-day period, the PLAAF flew a
This article argues that no clear strategy exists that employs the military’s diplomatic force in a way that is coherent, unified, and relevant with today’s strategic reality. Up until March 2022, when it was finally updated, the most current DOD guidance for the Foreign Area Officer
The 2021 Executive Order (EO) 14008 states that the United States and world face not only climate change but also an intense climate crisis that must be acted on now. This EO puts climate change and its effects at the center of US foreign policy and national security, especially in the Indo-Pacific
The rejection of the British system in the Pacific permeated all levels of Australian society during the Commonwealth Crisis. The independent imperial policies of Deakin’s protectionist government toward territorial expansion, the first clandestine defense overtures of a colony to a
This article argues that through revised national policy, the United States should enforce an explicit security guarantee for Taiwan, leverage Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) capabilities, and employ a counter antiaccess/area-denial (A2/AD) strategy to curtail China’s aggressive
Taken as a whole, this story is a storm warning for the United States and its Navy, which rules the waves but faces growing threats from emerging powers. The Navy also needs to be wary of overconfidence affecting strategy and tactics, as it has not lost an aircraft carrier sunk in 77 years or a ship
Over the first decade and a half of the twenty-first century, China carried out its strategy to counter US power presence within “island chains” in a synchronized, methodical manner by extending its own basing in the South China Sea with manmade islands and inhabiting sovereign territory
Although now a middle-power, Tokyo is no idle bystander but has championed a Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) concept that seeks to promote the region’s stability and prosperity through upholding a rules-based international order. Moreover, Japan’s FOIP concept aligns well with US
The idea of the Indo-Pacific and the revival of the Quad is taken to be a balancing act to thwart the growing Chinese footprint in the region. Therefore, this article will first address the theoretical framework of balance of power, giving readers an overview about why nations balance. It will also
Aggressive Chinese endeavors in the South China Sea (SCS) will develop into hostiles between the United States, China, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries if Washington, Beijing, and ASEAN do not take steps to quell rising tensions. Sea routes through the SCS carried
The Russian invasion of Ukraine continues to illustrate an immutable fact. Without control of the air, ground forces are frustrated and less mobile. Thus, an army cannot gain desired control to achieve political objectives. In the Pacific, the Chinese are observing the conflict in Ukraine closely,
The Russian invasion of Ukraine will further complicate American foreign relations and make it more difficult to gain international support for its positions. Washington will need to revise its strategic approach to deal with additional factors and allow it to advance in more difficult
This article aims to examine the trade diversion effects of the US–China trade war on selected third-party economies from 2018 to 2019, during which tariff escalation between the United States and China was the most prominent. Using US import data of selected product groups from 2016 to 2020
Social media, digital marketing, and e-commerce are a part of citizens’ daily lives across the globe. As of 2021, nearly two-thirds of the world’s population are active Internet users, and more than half are active social media users. With more than $3.8 trillion spent in the online
This article explores why Japan has chosen a peculiar method to find the proper gun-and-butter balance in defense spending. This of course is Japan’s policy—not legal—decision to self-restrict its own defense budget to approximately one percent of gross domestic product. While
To be successful in Japan, United States Forces Japan and other personnel stationed in country must make significant efforts to build interpersonal relationships and to gain a deep understanding of the organizational cultures and priorities of the Japanese units with whom they are operating.
Achieving the national interests of the United States hinges on avoiding strategic narcissism in the Indo-Pacific Command area of responsibility. To fully employ a strategy of strategic empathy, strong regional alliances and partnerships must be cultivated and maintained. The Jungle Operations
Book Review: Australia-Japan Defence and Security Relationship 1945-2021: Making a Friend of a Former Foe, by Peter McDermott. New York: Routledge, 2022.
Book Review: Line of Advantage: Japan’s Grand Strategy in the Era of Abe Shinzō, by Michael J. Green. New York: Columbia University Press, 2022. 328 pp.
Book Review: Winning Wars: The Enduring Nature and Changing Character of Victory from Antiquity to the 21st Century, ed. Mattias Strohn. Oxford: Casemate Publishers, 2020. 315 pp. ISBN: 978-1-95271-500-6.
Book Review: Artificial Intelligence with Chinese Characteristics: National Strategy, Security and Authoritarian Governance, by Jinghan Zeng. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan Press, 2022, 125 pp.
Book Review: Stalin and Mao: A Comparison of the Russian and Chinese Revolutions by Lucien Bianco, trans. Krystyna Horko. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2018, 448 pp.
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Traditionally, power is measured by states’ ability to coerce using hard power; however, the diffusion of power largely due to increased interdependence and advanced technology development has rendered these traditional sources of power less effective in achieving desired outcomes. Today, it
First, this article discusses openness and selective US interests in an openness strategy. Second, recognizing that power comes from many sources, this article discusses leveraging the diplomatic, information, economic, then military (DIME) instruments of power to address China’s rise and
A selective engagement strategy in East Asia requires diplomatic and economic cooperation and confrontation, as well as information and military competition. This article will provide a background on China’s growing influence in East Asia, outline a grand strategy of selective engagement, and
More AC&S Commentaries
This article examines, first, Military-Civil Fusion’s origins and organizational framework, along with its execution today under President Xi Jinping. The analysis documents key economic and political interactions among MCF’s various stakeholders. Additionally, the article uses as an
This article provides a recommended definition of lawfare, contrasts the United States’ and China’s use of lawfare in the South China Sea, and discusses potential options for the United States’ strategic legitimization and operationalization of lawfare.
Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the United States has arguably exercised the most powerful global military imbalance the world has ever seen. This domination; however, is perceived to be fading in the wake of a new possible contender. The tension and likelihood of conflict between the United
More Cadet Perspectives
At the turn of the century, competition in space shifted from being between the United States and the Soviet Union to being between the United States and China. Since its first manned mission in 2003, China’s space program has accelerated dramatically. China completed the BeiDou System
The twenty-first century has seen a series of geopolitical and strategic shifts around the world, including in the Indo-Pacific, presenting major challenges to national leaders and military planners. Tectonic movements following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989, paired with technological
More Kenney Papers
The proliferation of space technologies to middle and regional powers raises new questions concerning contemporary international politics and the likelihood of war. Since China launched its infamous 2007 antisatellite missile test, the United States has grown increasingly concerned about the number
More Sci-fi as Strategy
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