This article examines the prospect of Korean unification and the possibility of a future unified Korean Armed Forces through the lens of culture. Korea provides an interesting subject for cultural study for a few reasons. First, the desires of South and North Koreans suggests that unification, while
Defending the homeland is the number one priority for the United States, the Department of Defense (DOD), and my commands: North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and US Northern Command (USNORTHCOM). NORAD’s area of responsibility includes the North American Arctic, and USNORTHCOM is
The guiding principle for NATO’s political strategy toward Russia for the past 50 years was defined in the 1967 Harmel Report—a dualistic approach based on deterrence and détente. This double-track approach came as a response to intense Cold War relations in the mid-1960s that
As defense and security concerns increase over growing access and competitive interests in the circumpolar North, the United States continues to develop Arctic operational purpose and capabilities. The Department of Defense’s (DOD) newest combat training center (CTC) in Alaska represents key
Arctic experts talk about the circumpolar region as three Arctics—North American, European, and Russian (sometimes called Asian)—each with unique physical characteristics that heavily influence their defense and security considerations. The differences between the regions are usually
This article begins by describing how Special Operations Command North (SOCNORTH), as a theater special operations command, supports US Northern Command’s (USNORTHCOM) primary mission of homeland defense. Next, it explains why deploying special operations forces (SOF) to the region signals the
More Sr. Leader Perspectives...
Under the new government helmed by President Yoon Suk-yeol, South Korea (ROK) has displayed a clear tilt toward and a more open embrace of the Indo-Pacific concept. Interestingly, Yoon has also expressed the need for a review of South Korea’s ties with China, strengthening the United
As a crucial node in technology supply chains, semiconductors are a vital part of the global economy and especially important for the Indo-Pacific region, which is host to the most important chip producers and production networks. The nature of the industry is highly distributed and concentrated. No
This article examines the implications of South Korea’s 2022 presidential election on Seoul’s policy toward North Korea. Specifically, this article seeks to explain how a deeply divided public will affect the credibility of the conservative Yoon administration as it seeks to implement a
This article will explore Seoul’s evolving energy-security strategy under the Yoon administration. It will start with an overview of South Korea’s energy-security situation and a summary of the Yoon administration’s new energy policies, focusing on policies to replace fossil fuels.
Over the past few decades, South Korean culture has gained popularity worldwide. Since the 1990s, government-led cultural policies have transitioned from focusing on economic strategy to national branding and soft power and have had a positive impact on the domestic ecosystem of cultural industry
This article explores how the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine has upended and reshaped Arctic security, institutions, and partnerships. With Arctic governance institutions that include Russia, such as the Arctic Council, on pause and scientific collaboration with Russia interrupted, the military
This article explores the roles, relevance, and limitations of existing international institutions and mechanisms to address the underlying conditions that could lead to misperceptions and instability in the Arctic region. It offers a framework for policy makers to reinforce, restore, and scale
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) asserts that it is a “near-Arctic state” and an “important stakeholder in Arctic affairs” with the right to a greater role in Arctic governance. China’s interests in and future designs for the region have become a staple of the
For a decade, China has waged “gunboat diplomacy” in the South China Sea (SCS) by bullying its maritime neighbors into accepting its territorial claims of “indisputable sovereignty” and control over 90 percent of the sea. The costs of China’s maritime coercion, however,
After assessing the urgency and existential threats of Korean water issues and the conditions of the security agenda referred to in securitization theory from national, regional, and international levels, this article argues that water needs to be added to Korea’s comprehensive security
Despite displays of closer US–South Korea threat perception alignment, indicators point to the Yoon administration likely maintaining a nuanced approach between the United States and China—specifically in regional security cooperation. This article provides background on why the
For the Chinese Communist Party, the twenty-first century marks the inevitable return of the Middle Kingdom to its “rightful place” as the preeminent power in the world. The Arctic fits into this expansive and ambitious Chinese Dream to supplant the United States as the preeminent global
This article explores various requirements needed for the Department of Defense to be competitive in the Arctic region. In particular, the role of US Army Arctic Special Operations Forces should be developed and leveraged as part of competitive operational solutions. While capability definitions and
Climate change is reshaping global geopolitics, and the Arctic is now in the crosshairs of geostrategic competition. Because of these changes, more stakeholders than ever are strategizing about the Arctic. Special operations forces (SOF) have a global mission in support of US national security
Due to the Arctic’s harsh environment and weather conditions, the region’s settlements and infrastructure are limited. Space will play a unique role in providing the necessary means to control and secure operations in the Arctic for commercial, civil, and military activity for all
This article argues that no clear strategy exists that employs the military’s diplomatic force in a way that is coherent, unified, and relevant with today’s strategic reality. Up until March 2022, when it was finally updated, the most current DOD guidance for the Foreign Area Officer
The 2021 Executive Order (EO) 14008 states that the United States and world face not only climate change but also an intense climate crisis that must be acted on now. This EO puts climate change and its effects at the center of US foreign policy and national security, especially in the Indo-Pacific
This special issue aims to provide a list of potential strategic issues that deserves South Korea’s attention in the long run, examine the current situation in Seoul, and explore potential challenges in these fields, which will eventually contribute to South Korea’s stepping up as a
Most armies train to fight on their own soil or that of their neighbors. Some, like the British Army during the days of the British Empire, trained to fight on a variety of terrain and in differing climates. Today, the best-trained Arctic forces are those of Russia, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and
This article argues that, since 2013, China’s involvement in Arctic affairs has accelerated, and Beijing has begun to assert its political and economic ambitions more formally in its white papers, Vision for Maritime Cooperation Under the Belt and Road Initiative, China’s Arctic Policy,
Aggressive Chinese endeavors in the South China Sea (SCS) will develop into hostiles between the United States, China, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries if Washington, Beijing, and ASEAN do not take steps to quell rising tensions. Sea routes through the SCS carried
The Russian invasion of Ukraine continues to illustrate an immutable fact. Without control of the air, ground forces are frustrated and less mobile. Thus, an army cannot gain desired control to achieve political objectives. In the Pacific, the Chinese are observing the conflict in Ukraine closely,
The Russian invasion of Ukraine will further complicate American foreign relations and make it more difficult to gain international support for its positions. Washington will need to revise its strategic approach to deal with additional factors and allow it to advance in more difficult
This article aims to examine the trade diversion effects of the US–China trade war on selected third-party economies from 2018 to 2019, during which tariff escalation between the United States and China was the most prominent. Using US import data of selected product groups from 2016 to 2020
Social media, digital marketing, and e-commerce are a part of citizens’ daily lives across the globe. As of 2021, nearly two-thirds of the world’s population are active Internet users, and more than half are active social media users. With more than $3.8 trillion spent in the online
Book Review - Daring to Struggle: China’s Global Ambitions Under Xi Jinping, by Bates Gill. New York: Oxford University Press, 2022. 306 pp.
Book Review: In the Name of the Nation: India and Its Northeast, Sanjib Baruah. Stanford University Press, 2020. ISBN 9781503610705. Reviewed by Navnath D. Phadatare.
Book Review: Ancient Egypt and Early China: State, Society, and Culture, Anthony J. Barbieri-Low. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2021. 316 pp. ISBN: 9780295748894.
Book Review: Australia-Japan Defence and Security Relationship 1945-2021: Making a Friend of a Former Foe, by Peter McDermott. New York: Routledge, 2022.
Book Review: Line of Advantage: Japan’s Grand Strategy in the Era of Abe Shinzō, by Michael J. Green. New York: Columbia University Press, 2022. 328 pp.
More Book Reviews...
Traditionally, power is measured by states’ ability to coerce using hard power; however, the diffusion of power largely due to increased interdependence and advanced technology development has rendered these traditional sources of power less effective in achieving desired outcomes. Today, it
First, this article discusses openness and selective US interests in an openness strategy. Second, recognizing that power comes from many sources, this article discusses leveraging the diplomatic, information, economic, then military (DIME) instruments of power to address China’s rise and
A selective engagement strategy in East Asia requires diplomatic and economic cooperation and confrontation, as well as information and military competition. This article will provide a background on China’s growing influence in East Asia, outline a grand strategy of selective engagement, and
More AC&S Commentaries
This article examines, first, Military-Civil Fusion’s origins and organizational framework, along with its execution today under President Xi Jinping. The analysis documents key economic and political interactions among MCF’s various stakeholders. Additionally, the article uses as an
This article provides a recommended definition of lawfare, contrasts the United States’ and China’s use of lawfare in the South China Sea, and discusses potential options for the United States’ strategic legitimization and operationalization of lawfare.
Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the United States has arguably exercised the most powerful global military imbalance the world has ever seen. This domination; however, is perceived to be fading in the wake of a new possible contender. The tension and likelihood of conflict between the United
More Cadet Perspectives
At the turn of the century, competition in space shifted from being between the United States and the Soviet Union to being between the United States and China. Since its first manned mission in 2003, China’s space program has accelerated dramatically. China completed the BeiDou System
The twenty-first century has seen a series of geopolitical and strategic shifts around the world, including in the Indo-Pacific, presenting major challenges to national leaders and military planners. Tectonic movements following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989, paired with technological
More Kenney Papers
The proliferation of space technologies to middle and regional powers raises new questions concerning contemporary international politics and the likelihood of war. Since China launched its infamous 2007 antisatellite missile test, the United States has grown increasingly concerned about the number
More Sci-fi as Strategy
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