The authors contend that steps must be taken to establish a broader multilateral approach to conducting sensitive reconnaissance operations (SRO). Partnering with other nations to embed personnel will increase these missions’ legitimacy and send a stronger, more unified message regarding our
As the Taliban rolled into Kabul on 15 August 2021 on motorcycles and in stolen Humvees, they clearly did not fear the one thing that had kept them at bay for years: air strikes. US forces had withdrawn; even “over-¬the-¬horizon” US air support had ceased—and the Afghan Air
The current Arctic security environment is poorly characterized. In the past few years, it has been termed “a return to great-power competition” and now is oscillating around discussions of hybrid threats or gray-zone warfare. Whatever the term, these are methods and means designed to
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As strategic competition in the Indo-Pacific theater intensifies, states are more actively searching for ways to strengthen its position in the great-power game. Emerging technologies are at the center of this new geopolitical, geostrategic chess board, its dual capabilities are opening new domains
Explicitly, this article asks us to contemplate a regional intelligence gathering and sharing convention. Such a convention would systematize and regulate the collection, the analysis, and the sharing of intelligence data. Such a convention is likely to be progressively important as we
In response to a highly potential military confrontation in the Taiwan Strait, both the United States and Taiwan must look for a strong collective defense framework against China’s threat, and the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD or Quad), composed of the United States, Japan, Australia,
This article presents the Converged Effects Cells (CEC) theoretical model to organize and employ information warfare (IW) capabilities in the Indo-Pacific necessary for the success of Agile Combat Employment (ACE) and Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2). This construct operationalizes the
According to one of the most prominent theories, neorealism, state behavior is driven primarily by the distribution of material capabilities in the international system and changes in that distribution are a source of anxiety: “Rising states pose a challenge to others and inspire them, almost
This article recommends that the personnel strength of the Indian Army be reduced by 200,000 men over a five-year period, while simultaneously shifting slowly to an oceanic strategy by further strengthening the equipment for the Army and the Navy and Air Force. It is estimated an approximate sum of
Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have been developed for many years and applied in various areas. Applications of AI are contested not only on domestic surveillance but also on military uses. The AI-related topics have become even more controversial and attracted more attention when China,
As it has across the entire Indo-Pacific, geopolitical competition has intensified in the Bay of Bengal. There is, indeed, a competition between and among major powers; India competes with China, US-led allies challenge China’s assertiveness, and the Bay of Bengal—situated at the
India has proactively engaged in the South China Sea (SCS), notably via boosting its naval presence and forging ties with Vietnam despite China’s aggression. This article analyzes relevant incentives for India’s engagement in the SCS, then examines the maturation of India-Vietnam
This article argues that through revised national policy, the United States should enforce an explicit security guarantee for Taiwan, leverage Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) capabilities, and employ a counter antiaccess/area-denial (A2/AD) strategy to curtail China’s aggressive
Taken as a whole, this story is a storm warning for the United States and its Navy, which rules the waves but faces growing threats from emerging powers. The Navy also needs to be wary of overconfidence affecting strategy and tactics, as it has not lost an aircraft carrier sunk in 77 years or a ship
Over the first decade and a half of the twenty-first century, China carried out its strategy to counter US power presence within “island chains” in a synchronized, methodical manner by extending its own basing in the South China Sea with manmade islands and inhabiting sovereign territory
Although now a middle-power, Tokyo is no idle bystander but has championed a Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) concept that seeks to promote the region’s stability and prosperity through upholding a rules-based international order. Moreover, Japan’s FOIP concept aligns well with US
The idea of the Indo-Pacific and the revival of the Quad is taken to be a balancing act to thwart the growing Chinese footprint in the region. Therefore, this article will first address the theoretical framework of balance of power, giving readers an overview about why nations balance. It will also
In a full-scale war, China would be decimated by the nuclear and conventionally superior US military. China has not dealt with any external crisis, nor has fought full-scale wars in modern history. A technological gap exists between the United States and China. They definitely are not in the same
The devastating COVID-19 pandemic further brought the Quad states together, shifting their agenda to more immediate goals of vaccine diplomacy, health crisis management, medical supply distribution, and collective plans to kickstart economic recovery. Nonetheless, amid the pandemic, tensions
Unlike the United States, China is heavily invested in African infrastructure, telecommunications, and government-to-government ties. What accounts for this investment? And has the United States underestimated Africa? There are several possible answers to this first question. First,
Achieving the national interests of the United States hinges on avoiding strategic narcissism in the Indo-Pacific Command area of responsibility. To fully employ a strategy of strategic empathy, strong regional alliances and partnerships must be cultivated and maintained. The Jungle Operations
As we enter the Age of Artificial Intelligence and an increasingly securitized cyberspace, the direction of history, materially or ideationally, may be diverging away from those articulated by Francis Fukuyama, Parag Khanna, and Yan Xuetong. This will impact how we conceive of great powers and
Vital lessons we can draw from the war over the Falkland Islands will assist company and field grade officers across all the joint force in developing an understanding of how difficult conducting such a campaign could be in the near future, particularly in the Indo-Pacific.
Since 1949 China has focused on a national renewal and overcoming a “Century of Humiliation” that saw it fall from the pinnacle of its power and become subjugated by Western and Japanese imperialists. This recent history and cultural memory from thousands of years of successive dynasties
India’s provision of humanitarian aid to Ukraine and criticisms of Russian conduct in its statements explaining its decisions to abstain from UNSC votes on the issue are welcome moves. Nevertheless, in his recent book detailing the logic and goals of Indian foreign policy, Indian External
In response to the aggressive policies of Russia and China, and particularly in the aftermath of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, states within the Indo-Pacific region need to significantly enhance their deterrence capabilities in the South China Sea, East China Sea, and across the Taiwan Straits.
The disaster of America’s closure of its Afghan experience was just as humiliating as any other great power’s adventure there, and now time will tell what the total consequences of our leaving will bring.
Ramping aggression and use of wolf-warrior diplomacy from Beijing raises insecurity in the Indo-Pacific. Flashpoints of conflict along the Southwestern border with India in the Himalayas, the construction of artificial islands in the South China Sea, and the imposition of the nine-dash line have
Book Review: We Shall Be Masters: Russian Pivots to East Asia from Peter the Great to Putin, by Chris Miller. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2021. 384 pp. ISBN: 978-0674916449.
Book Review: Victory at Sea: Naval Power and the Transformation of the Global Order in World War II, by Paul Kennedy, with paintings by Ian Marshall. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2022. ISBN: 9780300219173. Illustrations. Appendices. Notes. Bibliography. Index Pp xv, 451.
Book Review: Rethinking American Grand Strategy, ed. Elizabeth Borgwardt, Christopher McKnight Nichols, and Andrew Preston. New York: Oxford University Press 2021, ISBN 9780190695699, 502 pp.
Book Review: Rethinking American Grand Strategy, ed. Elizabeth Borgwardt, Christopher McKnight Nichols, and Andrew Preston. New York: Oxford University Press, 2021; xv + 483 pp. ISBN-13: 9780190695668.
Book Review: The Horde: How the Mongols Changed the World, by Marie Favereau. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2021, 384 pp.
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Traditionally, power is measured by states’ ability to coerce using hard power; however, the diffusion of power largely due to increased interdependence and advanced technology development has rendered these traditional sources of power less effective in achieving desired outcomes. Today, it
First, this article discusses openness and selective US interests in an openness strategy. Second, recognizing that power comes from many sources, this article discusses leveraging the diplomatic, information, economic, then military (DIME) instruments of power to address China’s rise and
A selective engagement strategy in East Asia requires diplomatic and economic cooperation and confrontation, as well as information and military competition. This article will provide a background on China’s growing influence in East Asia, outline a grand strategy of selective engagement, and
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This article examines, first, Military-Civil Fusion’s origins and organizational framework, along with its execution today under President Xi Jinping. The analysis documents key economic and political interactions among MCF’s various stakeholders. Additionally, the article uses as an
This article provides a recommended definition of lawfare, contrasts the United States’ and China’s use of lawfare in the South China Sea, and discusses potential options for the United States’ strategic legitimization and operationalization of lawfare.
Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the United States has arguably exercised the most powerful global military imbalance the world has ever seen. This domination; however, is perceived to be fading in the wake of a new possible contender. The tension and likelihood of conflict between the United
More Cadet Perspectives
The twenty-first century has seen a series of geopolitical and strategic shifts around the world, including in the Indo-Pacific, presenting major challenges to national leaders and military planners. Tectonic movements following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989, paired with technological
More Kenney Papers
The proliferation of space technologies to middle and regional powers raises new questions concerning contemporary international politics and the likelihood of war. Since China launched its infamous 2007 antisatellite missile test, the United States has grown increasingly concerned about the number
More Sci-fi as Strategy
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