The United States and its allies and partners should increase their focus on Borneo, as Indonesia begins breaking ground on its ambitious project to relocate its national capital to the Indonesian part of the island starting in 2024. The Indonesian government says it wants its new capital,
Abstract: The credibility of US claims of a new commitment to the Pacific—which has seen American attention wax and wane over the years—is going to be tested. The advantages that the United States enjoy in the Indo-Pacific are at risk if this administration’s efforts are regarded
This article examines the prospect of Korean unification and the possibility of a future unified Korean Armed Forces through the lens of culture. Korea provides an interesting subject for cultural study for a few reasons. First, the desires of South and North Koreans suggests that unification, while
Defending the homeland is the number one priority for the United States, the Department of Defense (DOD), and my commands: North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and US Northern Command (USNORTHCOM). NORAD’s area of responsibility includes the North American Arctic, and USNORTHCOM is
The guiding principle for NATO’s political strategy toward Russia for the past 50 years was defined in the 1967 Harmel Report—a dualistic approach based on deterrence and détente. This double-track approach came as a response to intense Cold War relations in the mid-1960s that
As defense and security concerns increase over growing access and competitive interests in the circumpolar North, the United States continues to develop Arctic operational purpose and capabilities. The Department of Defense’s (DOD) newest combat training center (CTC) in Alaska represents key
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The United States has entered a dangerous new era in which, for the first time in history, the nation is soon to face two nuclear-peer adversaries: Russia and China. In the three decades after the Soviet Union’s collapse, the United States focused on a variety of national security challenges
India retains a policy that restricts freedom of navigation in what it considers its territorial waters; at the same time, India has taken a vocal stance on the importance of freedom of the sea and the international rules-based order. While maintaining both positions seems contradictory, it should
The acute global chip shortage that disrupted the military supply chain highlighted the need for the United States to be independent in terms of semiconductor manufacturing and chip design. This need is further intensified as China threatens the sovereignty of Taiwan, the chip-manufacturing
As China and the United States standoff in strategic competition, many observers predict that middle powers will play a pivotal role in determining the Indo-Pacific’s future. This research attempts to shed light on attributes that define the foreign policy behaviors of middle powers vis-à-vis
To capture the growing great-power competition and potential confrontation in the Indo-Pacific, this article seeks to uncover how current Sino–US naval and maritime policies are being guided. Specifically, this article examines the theoretical, historical, and conventional nature of naval and
The Indo-Pacific concept has become more prominent in Australian strategic thinking, but the embrace of the term in declaratory policy has not been matched operationally. This mismatch is clearly evidenced in the unbalanced approach to the island states of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. The island
Will the emerging rules-based order in the Indo-Pacific insulate the region’s small island states from the vicissitudes of great-power competition? In this article, the author uses evidence from the Chagos dispute between Mauritius and the United Kingdom to argue that the Indo-Pacific’s
Out of the 11 Southeast Asian countries, this article focuses on the Philippines because it is the most important of two US allies in the region, has supported a rules-based international order and free and open Indo-Pacific in disputes with China over the West Philippine Sea/South China Sea
Abstract: This article explores the development of Japan’s way, means, and ends of engaging the Indo-Pacific island states, particularly the Pacific Islands. In so doing, it analyses how Japan situates those island states in its Free and Open Indo-Pacific vision, what national interests Japan
Throughout history, many states have tolerated, sponsored, or even partnered with transnational criminal organizations, but the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) stands out as a nation where the government itself is the criminal organization, directly conducting drug trafficking,
China’s rise has been a topic of wide-ranging studies in international politics. Trade-driven economics appear to be the primary driver of Beijing’s meteoric rise. From 2007 to 2017, China contributed as much to global trade enlargement as all other countries. Accordingly, the Indian
After assessing the urgency and existential threats of Korean water issues and the conditions of the security agenda referred to in securitization theory from national, regional, and international levels, this article argues that water needs to be added to Korea’s comprehensive security
Despite displays of closer US–South Korea threat perception alignment, indicators point to the Yoon administration likely maintaining a nuanced approach between the United States and China—specifically in regional security cooperation. This article provides background on why the
For the Chinese Communist Party, the twenty-first century marks the inevitable return of the Middle Kingdom to its “rightful place” as the preeminent power in the world. The Arctic fits into this expansive and ambitious Chinese Dream to supplant the United States as the preeminent global
This article explores various requirements needed for the Department of Defense to be competitive in the Arctic region. In particular, the role of US Army Arctic Special Operations Forces should be developed and leveraged as part of competitive operational solutions. While capability definitions and
Climate change is reshaping global geopolitics, and the Arctic is now in the crosshairs of geostrategic competition. Because of these changes, more stakeholders than ever are strategizing about the Arctic. Special operations forces (SOF) have a global mission in support of US national security
Due to the Arctic’s harsh environment and weather conditions, the region’s settlements and infrastructure are limited. Space will play a unique role in providing the necessary means to control and secure operations in the Arctic for commercial, civil, and military activity for all
In its inaugural Indo-Pacific strategy, South Korea pledged to bolster the regional rules-based order to protect freedom, democracy, and human rights. The document expands on President Yoon Suk-yeol’s previous promises to accept greater responsibility for defending democratic principles and is
The United States needs to prevent China from occupying the Senkaku Islands and Taiwan by the latter half of 2025. For years, Beijing has made it known that China intends to take control of the Senkaku Islands and to unify Taiwan with the mainland. These courses of action would impact the regional
The twenty-first-century geopolitical reality recognizes that in an interconnected world geo-economic ties and strategic competition have shifted toward a region that connects two of the most important bodies of water bodies. The Indo-Pacific is a mental construct and a melting pot of the interests
Guest editors Dr. Chulanee Attanayake and Thilini Kahandawaarachchi provide an overview of the November–December issue of the Journal of Indo-Pacific Affairs, which focuses on the island nations of the Indo-Pacific in the milieu of the great-power competition
There are two different understandings of security in the Pacific region. While Pacific Island countries (PICs) are concerned with nontraditional security threats such as climate change, their traditional security partner, Australia, appears to be more concerned about the influence on the region of
This special issue aims to provide a list of potential strategic issues that deserves South Korea’s attention in the long run, examine the current situation in Seoul, and explore potential challenges in these fields, which will eventually contribute to South Korea’s stepping up as a
Most armies train to fight on their own soil or that of their neighbors. Some, like the British Army during the days of the British Empire, trained to fight on a variety of terrain and in differing climates. Today, the best-trained Arctic forces are those of Russia, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and
This article argues that, since 2013, China’s involvement in Arctic affairs has accelerated, and Beijing has begun to assert its political and economic ambitions more formally in its white papers, Vision for Maritime Cooperation Under the Belt and Road Initiative, China’s Arctic Policy,
Book Review - The Rise and Fall of Imperial China: The Social Origins of State Development, by Yuhua Wang. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2022. ISBN 9780691215167. Reviewed by Dr. Mark Jacobsen
Book Review - Taiwan Straits Standoff: 70 Years of PRC–Taiwan Cross-Strait Tensions, by Bruce A. Elleman. London: Anthem Press, 2021. ISBN 978-1-83998-556-0 (paperback). Reviewed by Dr. Augustine Meaher.
Book Review: Only Cry for the Living: Memos from Inside the ISIS Battlefield, by Hollie S. McKay. Houston: Jocko Publishing & Di Angelo Publications 2020, 436pp.
Book Review - Daring to Struggle: China’s Global Ambitions Under Xi Jinping, by Bates Gill. New York: Oxford University Press, 2022. 306 pp.
Book Review: In the Name of the Nation: India and Its Northeast, Sanjib Baruah. Stanford University Press, 2020. ISBN 9781503610705. Reviewed by Navnath D. Phadatare.
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Traditionally, power is measured by states’ ability to coerce using hard power; however, the diffusion of power largely due to increased interdependence and advanced technology development has rendered these traditional sources of power less effective in achieving desired outcomes. Today, it
First, this article discusses openness and selective US interests in an openness strategy. Second, recognizing that power comes from many sources, this article discusses leveraging the diplomatic, information, economic, then military (DIME) instruments of power to address China’s rise and
A selective engagement strategy in East Asia requires diplomatic and economic cooperation and confrontation, as well as information and military competition. This article will provide a background on China’s growing influence in East Asia, outline a grand strategy of selective engagement, and
More AC&S Commentaries
This article examines, first, Military-Civil Fusion’s origins and organizational framework, along with its execution today under President Xi Jinping. The analysis documents key economic and political interactions among MCF’s various stakeholders. Additionally, the article uses as an
This article provides a recommended definition of lawfare, contrasts the United States’ and China’s use of lawfare in the South China Sea, and discusses potential options for the United States’ strategic legitimization and operationalization of lawfare.
Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the United States has arguably exercised the most powerful global military imbalance the world has ever seen. This domination; however, is perceived to be fading in the wake of a new possible contender. The tension and likelihood of conflict between the United
More Cadet Perspectives
China has invested in several American industries since its entry into the World Trade Organization in 2001. Once an engine for American soft power, Hollywood has seen a dramatic increase in investment from China, with deals being valued at billions of dollars. The resulting financial influence has
This paper examines the prospect of Korean Unification and the possibility of a future unified Korean Armed Forces. I make arguments for the likelihood of unification and the possible means by which it might unfold, both from the perspective of regional players and that of the two Koreas. These two
At the turn of the century, competition in space shifted from being between the United States and the Soviet Union to being between the United States and China. Since its first manned mission in 2003, China’s space program has accelerated dramatically. China completed the BeiDou System
The twenty-first century has seen a series of geopolitical and strategic shifts around the world, including in the Indo-Pacific, presenting major challenges to national leaders and military planners. Tectonic movements following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989, paired with technological
More Kenney Papers
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