Journal of Indo-Pacific Affairs Articles

Category: Views
  • F-35 O-­Ring Production Functions versus Mosaic Warfare: Some Simple Mathematics

    This article concentrates on the likely magnitude of the mosaic warfare effect on mission success. Using a not-­exactly-­rocket-­science mathematical argument, the article suggests that this approach can, more often than not, substantially improve the chances of mission success in scenarios where traditional approaches are bound to fail. Considering that mosaic warfare systems can come a lot cheaper than the single-­platform weapon systems in use today, mosaic warfare could begin to look ever more attractive.

  • Erga Omnes Securitas: International Security and Reliance on Sustainable Partnerships

    If a healthy human-based mutual understanding can be fostered on a regular basis, then the US–Japan security relationship will continue to be the cornerstone of stability in East Asia. The lessons suggested in this article are not only applicable to the US–Japan alliance but also apply to the bilateral and multilateral relationships throughout the Indo-Pacific and across the globe. That same concept of sustainable interpersonal relationships as applied to the US–Japan relationship also holds true of other security relationships. Interpersonal relationships and cultural and language competence will be vital to sustainable security relationships continuing to be an asymmetric advantage in regions around the globe.

  • Opening the Door to Cultural Understanding and Mutual Cooperation: Multinational Military Partnerships and Educational Outreach

    This article will explore the current status of our military and diplomatic relations with allies in the Indo-Pacific theater through published research and the authors’ anecdotal experiences from working with multinational partners during different assignments, exercises, and distinguished visitor support to highlight Department of Defense successes, failures, and areas for improvement. These qualitative experiences will illuminate how cultural understanding is the key to the multilateral success of the United States’ alliance network.

  • Strengthening Interoperability through the Language Enabled Airman Program: Perspectives from the 2018 to 2019 US–Philippine ISR-­MTT Mission

    Interoperability is a priority for operational concepts, modular force elements, communications, information sharing, and equipment. It is also a key element for strengthening alliances and partnerships under the 2018 National Defense Strategy. The Air Force Language Enabled Airmen Program (LEAP) is a valuable tool for deepening interoperability but may be currently underutilized in some regional and cultural settings due to the scarcity of program participants. This article will illustrate the importance of building up such a pool of LEAP-­­trained workforce talent from the perspective of an Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance mobile training team (ISR-­­MTT) deployed by the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) to drive Philippine military independence on producing actionable intelligence from organic capabilities. It will describe the recruitment and training process; highlight key milestones that were achieved to elevate the ISR-­­MTT’s efforts as a benchmark for training other regional partners; address operational gaps; and provide recommendations to diversify the reach and potential of LEAP in support of the expansion of Indo-­­Pacific alliances and partnerships.

  • Expanding Cultural Competencies: Exposing All Outside Continental United States Airmen to the Local Populace

    On a regular basis, there are incidences of intercultural conflict between local non-­­­US communities and Airmen at outside continental United States (OCONUS) bases. Even when illegal infractions are not occurring, there are moral or social transgressions that erode the appearance of the US Air Force (USAF). The aim to build, maintain, and expand alliances and partner nations cannot be accomplished until there is an understanding of allies’/partners’ histories, cultures, religions, and languages. This understanding must be gained through intentional training and exposure. The training should be mandatory for all Air Force-­­­affiliated personnel who are stationed outside the United States, including Active Duty, Guard, Reserve, General Schedule, and contracted employees. Preparation for living overseas should include language, culture, history, and geopolitics courses for representatives of the USAF. The purpose is to equip American individuals with a baseline knowledge of the people and region of the country to which they are assigned. With this education, USAF-­­­affiliated individuals will be able to expand their cultural competencies, decrease cultural faux pas, increase collaborative efforts with partner and ally nations, and better focus on the tenets of the 2018 National Defense Strategy.

  • India’s Catalytic Reforms for Space 2.0 Era

    This article briefly highlights the May 2020 space reforms and the domestic, geopolitical, pandemic-related, and Industry 4.0-driven causal factors that are influencing the evolution of India’s space industrial ecosystems.

  • Rewriting the Rules: Analyzing the People’s Republic of China’s Efforts to Establish New International Norms

    The People’s Republic of China (PRC) hopes to rewrite the accepted norms through a combination of diminishing the credibility of existing liberal norms and the increasing acceptance of its own norms through soft-power influence and regional institutions. It sees the current system of norms and the institutions that promote and enforce them as relics of an era in which the PRC was not a great power and had no say in the establishment and development of the institutions and norms.

  • The Next War to End All Wars

    As in pre–World War I (WWI) politics, the SCS is ripe for conflict, and de-spite all DIME efforts, the United States faces an impossible battle in securing peace because of fierce geographic, historical, and nationalistic roadblocks. Due to their resources and natural boundaries, the physical regions of the SCS (like those of pre-WWI Alsace-Lorraine before it) make control of its resources and security highly desirable to its neighbors. Historically, both areas possess parallel trajectories, beginning with golden ages, humiliating declines, and preconflict struggles. Finally, each period’s nationalistic culture fervently escalates tensions regardless of US diplomacy and military presence. If the United States properly understands its casted role, it will transition from prevention to preparation for the upcoming multinational conflict.

  • Indo-Pacific Demographic Shifts: Effects of the Demographics in China and India on the Regional Security Environment

    India’s and China’s differing demographics can shift the Indo- Pacific’s security environment toward a position more favorable to the United States via economic and social factors. China’s demographic boom is starting to conclude, and internal forces may bring about change favorable to US interests in the region. Meanwhile, India’s demographic dividend could soon be collected if the Indian government prepares its country.

  • Reconsidering Attacks on Mainland China

    Demonstrating resolve and maintaining deterrence will rely heavily on America’s nuclear posture and its leaders’ demonstrated willingness to attack the homelands of adversaries conventionally to rapidly halt acts of aggression.

  • Warning: There Are Two Other Chinese Epidemics—Finance and Technology

    There are signs of systemic weakness and rising risk to the global community as China expands its market share and competes globally in the finance and information communications technology (ICT) sectors. There is the specter of an immediate pandemic in global finance and an emergent pandemic in ICTs. These pandemics may even coincide. However, both directly point back to China, as did the coronavirus pandemic. The symptoms of these two diseases are not overtly apparent. Based on reporting from Chinese sources, China appears to be at best “healthy” and at worst “asymptomatic.”

  • Reimagining the Macro Arctic Region: Rebuilding Global Trust through Democratic Peace and International Law as a Foundation for an Alliance to Coerce China from Taiwan

    The United States should adopt a strategy of a shared governance based on international law in the Macro Arctic Region (MAR) (future combined areas of the Arctic and Indo-Pacific regions) as a foundation to employ a targeted coercive strategy to influence Beijing to abandon China’s expansionist goals in Taiwan. This article first frames how the United States can rebuild global trust. After providing reasons why Washington needs to rebuild trust, particularly in the MAR, the concepts of international law and shared governance are applied to show how the United States should lead the consensus decision making with key MAR players. Next, the article extends the previous arguments for a strategically stronger alliance in the MAR. An Indo-Pacific Alliance is needed to influence expansionist countries and to employ a progressive coercive strategy aimed to control China’s expansion into Taiwan.



The views and opinions expressed or implied in JIPA are those of the authors and should not be construed as carrying the official sanction of the Department of Defense, Air Force, Air Education and Training Command, Air University, or other agencies or departments of the US government or their international equivalents. See our Publication Ethics Statement.