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  • Upholding and Improving the System of Socialism

    The next in our series of In Their Own Words, translated Chinese documents made available for primary source research and reference. The Decision of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee on Major Issues Concerning Upholding and Improving the System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Advancing the Modernization of China’s System
  • Chinese Airborne C4ISR

         As we move further into the era of 21st century great power competition, it is important to understand the many facets of that competition. This report is the next in a series of studies by the China Aerospace Studies Institute (CASI) that seeks to lay the foundation for better understanding the Aerospace Sector of the People’s Republic of
  • PLA's Science of Campaigns

         The “In Their Own Words” series is dedicated to translations of Chinese documents in order to help non-Mandarin speaking audiences access and understand Chinese thinking. CASI would like to thank all of those involved in this effort, especially the teams from our "big brother"/ 大哥 at the China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI), Project
  • In Their Own Words

    CASI has started a new project we are calling "In Their Own Words".  The CCP and the PLA think of Mandarin characters as their first cipher, their first line of defense, in keeping their thoughts and ideas concealed from the west.  CASI is helping English speaking audiences in accessing these documents.  With a mix of expert human inputs and
  • Command of the Air - the view of the PLAAF

         Although the 2004 white paper is the first of the PRC’s defense white papers to note what it calls “command of the air,” identified in the Chinese version as  zhikongquan (制空权), the concept for the PLAAF dates back to the 1960s.  Although the 2015 Defense White Paper, which focused on PLA strategy, did not have a single entry, the Academy of
  • China’s Navy Begins Fielding Newly Manufactured J-15 Carrier-Capable Fighters

    The People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) has likely received a new batch of J-15 carrier-based fighters. Recent video footage released on “Military Express” (军事快播) shows a J-15 with a tail number of “31” and another with either “33” or “35”. All previously known J-15 tail numbers fell within the “10” or “20” series, suggesting aircraft featuring a
  • China's Space Narrative

         Both China and the United States have created separate parts of their military dedicated to space. Commercial, scientific, and military endeavors in space are all intimately linked, and one must understand how they are viewed to better understand how a nation might proceed in one or all of those fields. In accordance with our charter to
  • General Secretary Xi's 5 "Nevers"

    The Chinese version is here:  http://cpc.people.com.cn/n1/2020/0904/c164113-31848883.htmlThe English is here: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-09/04/c_139340869.htmIn order to realize national rejuvenation, it is necessary to uphold the leadership of the CPC, to forge ahead on the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics, to continue
  • CASI Conference-2020 PRC Space Activities

    China Aerospace Studies Institute 2020 Conference on Space activities in the People's Republic of China

  • A Case Study Of The PRC's Hypersonic Systems Development

         Great Power Competition necessitates understanding with whom one is competing. It also requires understanding the breadth and depth that competition and how your competitor is progressing. Hypersonic systems are an emerging area of military technology with potentially transformative effects. Although different types of hypersonic systems have
  • Chinese Views of All-Domain Operations

    Joint All-Domain Operations (JADO), the joint operational concept that has evolved from Multi-Domain Battle (MDB) and then Multi-Domain Operations (MDO), is intended to cope with the military capabilities of Russia and China. Therefore, how Russia’s and China’s defense establishments perceive JADO is important for two reasons. First, their
  • China’s Air Force Wraps Up Large Force Exercise- Likely “Red Sword 2020”

    Starting in June 2020, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) appears to have held a large force exercise in and around the Gobi Desert area in northwest China. This exercise seems involved multiple branches of the PLAAF, including PLAAF aviation, mobile radar, and surface-to-air missile (SAM) units. Based on our understanding of
  • In for the ‘Soft’ Kill? The People’s Liberation Army’s Discussion of U.S. Offensive Space Capabilities

    The U.S. “Defense Space Strategy” summary, released 17 June 2020, outlines the U.S. objective of space superiority and identifies space as “a distinct warfighting domain.”1 On 9 March 2020, the “first offensive weapon system in the United States Space Force (USSF), the Counter Communications System Block 10.2 (CCS B10.2), achieved Initial
  • China and the Moon

    On January 4 2019, China became the first nation in the world to land a spacecraft on the far side of the Moon. The Chinese said that this accomplishment was not motivated by an imaginary “Asia space race,” or to obtain bragging rights in the international space community. The China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) is a carefully formulated series
  • China’s Air Force Preparing for Contingencies in the Skies Over Ladakh

         Although current clashes along the Line of Actual Control between India and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) are contained to hand-to-hand fighting as of mid-June 2020, the death of several dozen soldiers on 15 June reveals the potential for the skirmish to escalate in scale. As Indian and PRC soldiers continue to clash along the border,
  • China's Military-Civil Fusion Strategy

    Military-Civil Fusion (MCF), this term seems like a counterpart to the American term civil-military integration (CMI), but in reality it is far deeper and more complex. Whereas, according to the U.S. Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, America’s CMI is “cooperation between government and commercial facilities in research and development (R&D), manufacturing, and/or maintenance operations”, China’s Military-Civil Fusion strategy is a state-led, state-directed program and plan 
    to leverage all levers of state and commercial power to strengthen and support the armed wing of the Communist Party of China, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

    China’s Military-Civil Fusion program is not new. Every leader since Mao Zedong has had a program to compel the “commercial” and “civil” parts of Chinese society to support the PLA. It has gone by different terms, Military-Civil Integration, Military-Civil Fused Development, etc. General Secretary Xi Jinping has elevated the concept to Military-Civil Fusion. But is all cases, it is the “Military” that comes first. Whereas in the United States there is a partnership for spin-off and spin-on technologies, with a goal of assisting commercial companies as well as the military, this is simply a happy coincidence when, and if, it happens in China.

    Since Xi Jinping’s assumption of power, the role of the military, and the importance of MCF have markedly increased. General Secretary Xi has clearly switched the emphasis from Deng Xiaoping’s famous statement. While most remember the first part of Deng’s saying, “韬光养晦”, which is generally translated to “bide your time, and hide your capabilities”, most Americans, and westerners, seem to forget there was more in his dictum. The full quote is: “冷静观察, 稳住阵脚, 沉着应付, 韬光养晦, 善于守拙, 决不当头, 有所作为”  It is the last four characters that now seem to have the emphasis, loosely translated- and achieve some goals/ get something done. This explains China’s growing assertiveness and emphasis on the final piece of Deng Xiaoping’s “Four Modernizations”, the military.

    To date, most surveys and analysis of MCF have focused on concrete examples, of how it is or is not working. These are important aspects to understand and study. However, what this report does is focus on how Military- Civil Fusion fits in to the CCP’s and the PRC’s overall national strategy; how it fits in with the other pieces which the CCP uses to guide the development path of the PRC; and rather than “looking down” to focus on the implementation of the program, but rather to “look up” to the strategies and policies that form the connective tissues within the greater system.

    This report is intended for both policy makers and practitioners, to help them better understand how MCF is intrinsically linked to the other national strategic-level programs in China, and help them better compete in the long-term by understanding the nature of the system with which we are competing.

    Dr. Brendan S. Mulvaney
    Director, China Aerospace Studies Institute

  • Chinese Aerospace Along the Belt and Road

         One of Xi Jinping’s global projects to make the China Dream a reality is the “一带一路/ One-Belt One-Road” project, since rebranded in English as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). This initiative has evolved from a trade and infrastructure plan involving a handful of countries residing along ancient and modern trade routes to a
  • China’s Military Strategy White Papers

      2015 China's Military Strategy  The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China This copy has both the Mandarin and the English together, broken by paragraphs. 2015 White Paper-Eng and Ch.pdf    2010 China Defense White Paper The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic
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