Volume 01 Issue 02, Winter 2019 Published Nov. 26, 2019 Journal of European, Middle Eastern, & African Affairs / Maxwell, AFB, AL ARTICLES Why There Is No Military Solution to the Problems of Peacekeeping Ambassador Dennis Jett, PhD This senior leader perspective focuses on peacekeeping operations, particularly in the African context. Neither peacekeepers nor the typical reaction of governments—more violence—will be able to prevent violent extremism. There is one approach that holds promise, but whether the international community has the will, attention span, and unity to take it is doubtful. Public policy and governance is a far more effective response to violent extremism than military force. The incentive to govern better will have to come from within those countries but must be supported by outside forces—but not military forces. To ensure the necessary changes happen, the international community should apply substantial and consistent economic and political pressure and sanctions against all those responsible for the creation of instability and violence. Structure and African Foreign Policy Agency Dr. Stephen F. Burgess While acknowledging impressive African agency, this article takes account of countervailing structural factors within the framework of the agent-structure debate. First, African regional and subregional structures consist of developing countries that will continue to be unable to fully implement foreign policy agency initiatives, particularly in the areas of collective security and economic cooperation. Second, structure helps determine whether program formulation within an African subregion is present or not. In the North African subregion, two relatively strong, rival states have created a bipolar structure, resulting in an absence of subregional agency in collective security, economic cooperation, and other areas. In contrast, most African subregional structures are not bipolar, and leaders and states have exhibited agency in forging organizations to promote economic cooperation and collective security, and some have made modest gains in implementation. The overarching question is when will African foreign policy agency overcome structural constraints and make the goal of “African solutions to African problems” a complete reality? Two Distant Giants Dr. Steven F. Jackson This article examines the relationship between the giant of Asia, China, and the giant of Africa, Nigeria, and the ways these two countries interact with each other. For much of the early period from 1960–2000, there was little relationship. Furthermore, this relationship does not follow the most common Western narrative of “China in Africa”: that China is looking to Africa purely for natural resources, especially energy, and does not care about other aspects of Africa. In fact, Chinese oil imports from Nigeria are fairly modest, and Beijing’s overall imports from Nigeria are only one-eighth of China’s exports to Nigeria, which have been growing primarily in consumer goods. China has invested over USD 2.6 billion in Nigeria in recent years, and thousands of Chinese have gone there either as tourists, merchants, or construction engineers. It is also noteworthy that there is a large Nigerian migrant community in China, primarily in Guangzhou. Thus, both countries view each other as important; by examining public opinion surveys, popular media, newspaper accounts and editorials, this article will reveal that the relationship is much more complex than the simplistic idea of “resource diplomacy.” Footing the Bill Jay Mens Examining the developing economic dimension of Russian and Iranian involvement in Syria adds perspective to the strategic interests of both countries, the extent of their entrenchment, and also the degree to which their long-term interests conflict, this article hopes to show, through examining their calculated investments in postwar Syria, both Russia and Iran have attempted to translate their contribution to the Assad regime’s war effort into enduring strategic gains after the civil war’s end and even if their military contingents are evacuated or significantly downsized. Following this examination, the article will consider ways in which the United States can leverage the conflicts of Iranian and Russian interests, which constitute an opportunity for the United States and its partners to gain something from the civil war’s conclusion, even after the withdrawal of American boots from the ground. The Contract Broken, and Restored Dr. Forrest Marion This article examines the history of air rescue operations and the failure to properly plan for and deploy adequate resources to that effort during the early years of Operation Inherent Resolve. Ideologizing and Fundamentalism in Iranian Foreign Policy under the Hassan Rouhani Presidency Dr. Przemysław Osiewicz This article provides a theoretical and empirical study of the co-occurrence of ideologizing and fundamentalism in the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran under Pres. Hassan Rouhani. Without any doubt, it is essential to understand the foundations of the Iranian political system to analyze Iran’s foreign policy objectives as well as actions undertaken by Iranian authorities. The Case of Israel's Technology Transfers as Tools of Diplomacy in East Asia Dr. David Tooch This article explores the usefulness of know-how sharing in the making and boosting of Israel’s ties in East Asia. It examines Israel’s technology transfers as tools of diplomacy in terms of propping up trade ties, cultivating robust bilateral exchanges, and, at times softening the policies of pivotal Asian nations like China toward Israel in the context of the conflict with the Palestinians. The article also looks at how specialized knowledge sharing might reveal subtexts in ties between the technology sender (Israel) and the technology consumer (recipient partner nation). . Brothers in Berets: The Evolution of Air Force Special Tactics, 1953-2003 by Forrest L. Marion. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 2018 Reviewed by James Howard Forrest Marion has produced a very useful picture of the development of Air Force Special Tactics, especially from the invasion of Panama through 2003. The narrative is organized chronologically, beginning with the American airborne operations in the Mediterranean in 1943 and concluding in May of 2003.