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LATEST EDITION

Volume 02 Issue 02, Summer 2020

Journal of European, Middle Eastern, & African Affairs --
 

Features

As President Putin strives to rebuild Russia’s international standing, Moscow has become increasingly adversarial toward the West.
Russia resurgent
As President Putin strives to rebuild Russia’s international standing, Moscow has become increasingly adversarial toward the West.
Photo By: news2.ru
VIRIN: 200401-F-YT915-0001

Putin and Missile Defense Malaise
Dr. Stephen J. Cimbala
Dr. Adam Lowther

The authors first consider some of the military-strategic and arms control issues that have complicated US– and NATO–Russian dialogue on missile defenses. They then analyze the hypothetical impacts that ICBM silo defenses deployed by the United States and Russia might have on deterrence and arms control stability, including consideration of possible alternatives.

Members of the Ukrainian Army pose for a photo during Combined Resolve XIII at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center, Hohenfels, Germany, 31 January 2020. Seventeen countries worked together during the exercise to increase readiness and improve interoperability between allied and partner nations.
Enhancing the Ukrainian armed forces
Members of the Ukrainian Army pose for a photo during Combined Resolve XIII at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center, Hohenfels, Germany, 31 January 2020. Seventeen countries worked together during the exercise to increase readiness and improve interoperability between allied and partner nations.
Photo By: Photo by US Army National Guard Sgt Fiona Berndt
VIRIN: 200131-Z-KK660-1001

Gray-zone Conflict Management
Dr. David Carment
Dani Belo

In this article, the authors examine the involvement of state and nonstate actors in gray-zone conflict and their relationship to hybrid warfare and the implications for conflict management. The article unfolds in four parts. In the first part, they examine the concept of gray-zone conflict and how it relates to hybrid warfare and conventional interpretations and theories of conflict and war. In the second section, we outline evidence from the ongoing conflict in Eastern Ukraine with respect to how gray-zone conflict impacts both state behavior and conflict management strategies. In the concluding part, the authors consider implications for conflict management and directions for future research. Building on these insights, they identify several key steps for conflict resolution in Eastern Ukraine. The authors argue that it is important to disentangle and individually address the challenges posed by gray-zone conflict in all three security, economic, and sociopolitical domains. It is also essential to update international laws of war to account for low-intensity armed and unarmed hybrid tactics. Finally, it will be necessary to reform and upgrade contemporary international institutions to address gray-zone conflict.

The image depicts the contradiction between jihadis railing against Western modernity through the use of Western social media outlets.
ISIS vs. Western Modernity
The image depicts the contradiction between jihadis railing against Western modernity through the use of Western social media outlets.
Photo By: Mike Keefe
VIRIN: 200413-F-YT915-0002

Musical Criminology
Dr. Hayat Alvi

This study examines and comparatively analyzes the two musical genres in the context of terrorism and narco-terrorism, and how these musical traditions affect their respective followers, admirers, and devotees. The analysis also highlights how these musical genres popularize crime and violence, and desensitize audiences to the extreme brutality praised and glorified in their songs.

Views

US Air Force Gen Tod D. Wolters, Supreme Allied Commander Europe, meets face to face with Allied Command Operations commanders and representatives from Allied Command Transformation at NATO Allied Land Command Headquarters in Izmir, Turkey, 29 January 2020, to discuss a number of issues, including NATO priorities and how the alliance is evolving to meet contemporary challenges in the defense of the alliance.
NATO Commanders Conference
US Air Force Gen Tod D. Wolters, Supreme Allied Commander Europe, meets face to face with Allied Command Operations commanders and representatives from Allied Command Transformation at NATO Allied Land Command Headquarters in Izmir, Turkey, 29 January 2020, to discuss a number of issues, including NATO priorities and how the alliance is evolving to meet contemporary challenges in the defense of the alliance.
Photo By: NATO photo by Spanish Sgt. First Class David Vivar, LANDCOM Public Affairs Office
VIRIN: 200129-A-UU794-435

Trump Is Right about Europe
Dr. Amit Gupta

This article argues that Europe can still be relevant, if the United States views the continent not as a military partner to engage in long-range military power projection but, instead, as an economic, diplomatic, and soft-power proponent that helps bolster world order.

The Kurdistan flag waves atop a government building of the Iraqi autonomous region of Kurdistan during an engagement between Coalition Forces and members of the Peshmerga media cell in Erbil, Iraq, 2 May 2019. The engagement was to discuss media capabilities and offer assistance to strengthen them.
A symbol of Kurdish nationalism
The Kurdistan flag waves atop a government building of the Iraqi autonomous region of Kurdistan during an engagement between Coalition Forces and members of the Peshmerga media cell in Erbil, Iraq, 2 May 2019. The engagement was to discuss media capabilities and offer assistance to strengthen them.
Photo By: US Army photo by SSgt Ray Boyington
VIRIN: 190502-A-JR267-990

The Middle East and Syria as a Case of Foreign Intervention
Dr. Andrés de Castro García

One of the key elements in the analysis of foreign realities is the acknowledgment of its foreign element. In a very recent publication, Dr. Irena Chiru, of the National Intelligence Academy of Romania, describes the importance of the cultural element in security-related research and the importance of understanding a country’s society and values. Western academics and practitioners must carefully study the Middle East, as a strategic area, to truly understand its history, its unique way of development, and forms of governance. This article intends to give a broad perspective of the Middle East—and Syria in particular—from a Western perspective but with an approach qualified by a proper experience on the field and using Realism and Structural Realism.

EU27 cooperation under BRI framework (2019)
EU27 cooperation under BRI framework (2019)
EU27 cooperation under BRI framework (2019)
Photo By: Dr. Ernest Rockwell
VIRIN: 200520-F-YT915-001

The Reconstruction of the Silk Road
Simon F. Taeuber

This article analyses the European Union’s (EU) and its member-states’ responses to the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and addresses norm contestation in Sino–European discourse regarding the primary institutions (PI) of sovereignty, international law, and market economy. The article combines the toolset of the English School with norm contestation theory. The findings show evidence for norm contestation and increasing tension in Sino–European discourse and relations since the beginning of Xi Jinping’s presidency. Moreover, the article illustrates that the BRI, while at first a projection screen for norm contestation, eventually became subject to contestation itself. The article argues that the identified norm contestation is rooted in a clash between liberal-solidarist interpretations of PIs and Chinese pluralist interpretations and that the variegated European responses to the BRI demonstrate the challenges the initiative presents to cohesion in EU foreign policy. Lastly, the article demonstrates that in contesting liberal-solidarist interpretations of PIs, China is resisting European solidarization and arguably proposing a pluralist alternative to a liberal-solidarist order.

Commentaries

US officials tour the Fincantieri Shipyard in Genoa, Italy, the largest shipyard in Europe.
Fincantieri Shipyard
US officials tour the Fincantieri Shipyard in Genoa, Italy, the largest shipyard in Europe.
Photo By: Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Kevin S. O’Brien, USN
VIRIN: 080827-N-UH963-079

The Battle Is Almost Lost
Dr. Liselotte Odgaard

Ships may be the new battleground for the European Union’s willingness to loosen its antitrust rules. Cruise ship builders Fincantieri in Italy and Chantiers de l’Atlantique in France attempt to create an industrial heavyweight to counter China’s rise as a cruise ship builder. These companies argue that if European shipbuilders continue to be constrained by rules protecting competition in Europe, Chinese companies with significant financial resources and with technological capacity comparable to that of Europe will take hold of the European shipbuilding market and outcompete European companies.

French Muslim youths rioting in Paris during a July 2014 anti-Israel demonstration.
Riots
French Muslim youths rioting in Paris during a July 2014 anti-Israel demonstration. (Photo: Twitter, @ManikTyagi)
Photo By: Dr. Ernest Rockwell
VIRIN: 200527-F-YT915-005

Radicalization in Prisons and Mosques in France
Vinayak Dalmia

France has the largest Islamic population in Europe and one of the largest percentages of total population. While the Arab Spring and associated conflict in the Middle East have triggered a significant influx of migrants into the country, France has been a destination for immigrants from its former colonies like Morocco and Algeria since the second half of the twentieth century. While many issues regarding radicalization stem from migration stretching back decades, the rapid increase in immigrants from war-torn areas, combined with prevalent Islamist extremism, presents extremely serious issues for the French government.

Book Reviews

Book cover with the title Two Centuries of US military Operations in Liberia: Challenges of  Resistance and Compliance by Dr. Niels Stephan Cato Hahn
Two Centuries of US military Operations in Liberia: Challenges of Resistance and Compliance
Liberia is the country in Africa where the United States has the most extended history of military engagement, and each intervention is layered on the experience of previous interventions. Over the years, the interventions have become more comprehensive and sophisticated, and Liberia can be considered an essential case for the general study of US military interventions in Africa. This book reviews the history of the United States-Liberia relations from the early 1820s to 2015, with particular attention paid to the role of the US armed forces. Contrary to most literature on the genesis and development of Liberia, this book demonstrates how US military power has been the primary influence shaping Liberia's history. This includes the role played by the US military in the founding of Liberia, the protection of the country during the European formal colonial era, multiple covert operations in securing US-friendly administrations in Liberia, and direct military interventions when necessary to secure American interests in the region [Niels Hahn/ 2020 / 381 pages / ISBN: 978158566304 / AU Press Code: B-163]
Photo By: Daniel Armstrong
VIRIN: 200331-F-QR584-001

Two Centuries of US Military Operations in Liberia: Challenges of Resistance and Compliance
by Niels Hahn
Reviewed by Jeffrey Biller

book cover
The Royal Air Force
Book cover
Photo By: Dr. Ernest Rockwell
VIRIN: 200610-F-YT915-002

The Royal Air Force: The First One Hundred Years
by John Buckley
Reviewed by LT Kristyna N. Smith, USA

book cover
Tiger Tracks—The Classic Panzer Memoir
book cover
Photo By: Dr. Ernest Rockwell
VIRIN: 200610-F-YT915-003

Tiger Tracks—The Classic Panzer Memoir
by Wolfgang Faust
Reviewed by Dr. Andrei V. Grinëv
Translated by Dr. Richard L. Bland


 
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JEMEAA Journal cover Q1 2019
 

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The views and opinions expressed or implied in JEMEAA are those of the authors and should not be construed as carrying the official sanction of the Department of Defense, Air Force, Air Education and Training Command, Air University, or other agencies or departments of the US government or their international equivalents.