Wild Blue Yonder (ISSN 2689-6478) is a peer-reviewed online journal and forum focused on military-related thought and dialogue. The journal seeks to foster discussion and debate among practitioners and academicians. We want to hear your ideas on how to reshape the way we think about air, space, cyberspace, and the multi-domain. Our articles bridge the gap between academic thought and practical operational experience.

Visit Other Air University Press Journals


Published by the Air University Press, Wild Blue Yonder (WBY) is a digital-only, professional journal of the US Air Force and a forum for dialogue regarding airpower, space, multidomain operations, regional affairs, military history, and a host of other topics. The journal fosters intellectual and professional development for service members and the creation of meaningful interaction among academicians, operators, students, and policy makers.

Articles submitted to the journal must be unclassified, nonsensitive, and releasable to the public. The length and depth of articles can vary significantly, and we strive for a good balance between pieces of scholarly rigor and operational perspective. Submit all manuscripts to WildBlueYonder@hqau.af.edu.

The views and opinions expressed or implied in WBY are those of the authors and should not be construed as carrying the official sanction of the United States Air Force, the Department of Defense, Air Education and Training Command, Air University, or other agencies or departments of the US government or international equivalents.

 Wild Blue Yonder
 600 Chennault Circle, Building 1405, Room 143
 Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6026
 Tel (334) 953-5560 Fax (334) 953-1451

Click here to subscribe, and we will keep you informed when we update the site.

You can reach our editorial staff at WildBlueYonder@hqau.af.edu

HomeWild Blue Yonder


  • A Primer on US Civil–Military Relations for National Security Practitioners

    The objective of the primer is to enable national security professionals—military and civilian—to critically evaluate arguments relating to civil–military relations and to be aware of the implications of their own actions.
  • Force Posturing and the Contemporary Security Environment: Options for Industrially Dependent Countries

    This article discusses the anatomy of a country’s force posture and its major determinants as major drivers of the military buildup and force posturing of a nation. It then scans force postures of few powerful nations in the backdrop of prevailing security environment to draw some relevant conclusions before proposing possible options for the developing countries to address their force posturing challenges.
  • COVID-19: China’s Chernobyl, China’s Berlin Airlift, or Neither?

    Contemporary history shows a pattern of crises such as wars or pandemics leading to a shift in global power politics and realignment of power centers. Crises result in opportunities for countries to climb or fall on the global power scale. Will the current COVID-19 crisis be Beijing's Chernobyl, Berlin Airlift, or neither?
  • Future Military Space: From Procurement to the Tactical Fight

    Requirements for space systems are developed on a five to ten-year time horizon, which does not allow the development of systems that can be utilized on demand in an area of responsibility (AOR). New systems must be developed that can be deployed on demand to AORs and utilized by ground, sea, air, cyber, and space forces.
  • So Just What Is a Killer Robot?: Detailing the Ongoing Debate around Defining Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems

    This article will compare competing definitions of what ought to be considered a lethal autonomous weapon system (LAWS), presenting these definitions for consideration of their merits and differences. Whether a given definition would be considered “prominent” in this respect is largely dependent on the extent to which it was cited in the scholarly literature. It would also depend on whether the definition was referred to in the official statements issued after each meeting of the Group of Governmental Experts on LAWSs, and the extent of the author’s broader contribution to military diffusion studies or Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS) research. This article will draw together elements of competing definitions from scholars, including Ariel Conn, Chris Jenks, and Michael C. Horowitz.

More Featured Articles

Cadet Perspectives

  • Economic Prospects for the Arctic: What Does It Mean for the United States?

    The United States needs the Arctic to be free of conflicts and defense overspending, enabling the country to scale back its global strategy and focus on the Indo-Pacific region. This is unlikely, given Chinese and Russia interests and tendencies. Consequently, the United States is preparing for a more adversarial environment in the Arctic.
  • Pilot Shortage

    One of the major problems that the aviation community is facing right now is a pilot shortage. In recent years, the number of pilots has slowly been declining, and now we have a major, global pilot shortage. Many people know about the shortage and are not doing anything about it. Many think it is not a big deal. However, it is actually a devastating problem.
  • Flexibility: The Key to Airpower

    In our country’s current state, due to COVID-19, the Air Force tenet of flexibility is one of the most important assets we possess as Airmen and future Airmen.
  • The Importance of Mental Health in Uniform

    As humans, our mental health is important. As a military member it is even more so. “Life in the military can be stressful for anyone from an Airman to a general officer.” The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines mental health as “our emotional, psychological, and social well-being.” It plays a major role in many aspects of a person’s life, including “how we handle stress, relate to others, and make healthy choices.” Many times, mental health and mental illness are used interchangeably; however, they are not the same thing.
  • Why the A-10 Should Not Retire Anytime Soon

    There are alternatives to using the A-10, but the Warthog still prevails through its many planned retirements because of its training requirements, design, weaponry, and ability to fly low and slow. The opinion by and large is that the A-10 is outdated, but this plane constantly proves why it has been around this long.

More Cadet Perspectives


Designed for social media, this Independence Day video incorporates the wearing of face masks of civilian and military airmen during the COVID-19 crisis. The messaging is extracted from a holiday message by Col. Jon Eberlan, Commander, 75th Air Base Wing, Hill Air Force Base, UT. (U.S. Air Force video by David Perry)
General David Goldfein joined Senior Fellows Michael O’Hanlon and Frank Rose in a conversation on the state of the Air Force, the technological innovations it is spearheading to maintain an edge over great power rivals, and where the Air Force stands with investments in talent and recruitment. https://www.brookings.edu/events/assessing-the-state-of-the-air-force-a-conversation-with-general-david-goldfein/ (transcript available) Subscribe! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=BrookingsInstitution Follow Brookings on social media! Facebook: http://www.Facebook.com/Brookings Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/BrookingsInst Instagram: http://www.Instagram.com/brookingsinst LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/com/company/the-brookings-institution
The United States Air Force Band, Washington Performing Arts, and National Harbor have partnered together with special guest artists Joshua Bell, Soloman Howard, and Larisa Martínez to present a special online event, streamed live at 4:00 p.m. on July 4th. Hosted by D.C.’s own Aaron Gilchrist, morning anchor at NBC Washington, “A Tribute to the American Spirit” will highlight the resilience of all Americans, honor our veterans, and celebrate Independence Day with some patriotic favorites.
Our future is about making history in space. We see exploration, courage, and new horizons for our country out there. https://www.airforce.com/spaceforce
#NIICEEvents | The Future of American Power SPEAKER: Dr. Amit Gupta, Associate Professor, USAF Air War College, Alabama Amit Gupta is an Associate Professor in the USAF Air War College, Alabama. His writings have focused on arms production and weapons proliferation, South Asian and Australian security policies, Diaspora politics, popular culture and politics and, more recently, on the US-China rivalry and the impact of demography on US foreign policy. His articles have appeared in Orbis, Asian Survey, Security Dialogue, The Round Table, and Mediterranean Quarterly. He is also the author or editor of seven books the most recent of which are: Air Power: The Next Generation, Amit Gupta Ed., Howgate Publishing, 2019 and Maritime Heritage and Challenges in the Indian Ocean and the Western Pacific, Howard M. Hensel and Amit Gupta (Eds.) Routledge, 2018.
“Today’s Air Force is the best in the world and the reason is obvious -- our people. Pure and simple. It’s no secret, a life of service can be hard and demanding – yet, our Airmen demonstrate an unrivaled dedication and inspiring willingness to serve. That’s why it’s important to recognize – publicly and often – the incredible work that is done every day, everywhere across the Air Force. Capturing that work, that attitude and the people behind it, is the focus of a new series of short films called “Because of You.” The first is about aviators, another looks at the lives and work of our maintainers, and there will be others to follow. Taken together, the films highlight the skill and professionalism our Airmen bring to the job each day. These are the Air Force’s defining characteristics, our core values, our ethos – and what drives the Air Force to impressive heights.” - Gen. David L. Goldfein, CSAF 21
Dr. Namrata Goswami is an independent analyst and author on space policy, great power politics, and ethnic conflicts. She is a subject matter expert in international affairs with the Futures Laboratory, Alabama, USA and guest lecturer, India Today Class, Emory University. After earning her Ph.D. in international relations from Jawaharlal Nehru University, she served for nearly a decade as Research Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), New Delhi, working on ethnic conflicts in India’s Northeast and China-India border conflict. Her research and expertise generated opportunities for collaborations abroad, and she accepted visiting fellowships at the Peace Research Institute, Oslo, Norway; the La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia; and the University of Heidelberg, Germany. In 2012, she was selected as a Jennings-Randolph Senior Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace (USIP), Washington D.C. and was awarded a Fulbright-Nehru Senior Fellowship that same year. Shortly after relocating to the U.S, she established her own strategy and policy consultancy in 2016. In 2016-2017, she won the prestigious MINERVA grant awarded by the Office of the U.S. Secretary of Defense (OSD) to study great power competition in the grey zone of outer space. In 2017, she was awarded a contract with Joint Special Forces University (JSOU) to write a monograph on ISIS in Asia. In April 2019, Dr. Goswami testified before the U.S-China Economic and Security Review Commission on China’s space program. Dr. Goswami is the first representative from South Asia chosen to participate in the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies NATO Partnership for Peace Consortium (PfPC) ‘Emerging Security Challenges Working Group.’ She received the Executive Leadership Certificate sponsored by the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, National Defense University (NDU), and the Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS). Her latest book on The Naga Ethnic Mo
Memorial Day is a day for us to remember and honor the real-life superheroes who gave their lives in the fight for our freedom. Video: Airman 1st Class Kevin Long
United States Space Force Recruitment Video


  • Island Hopping—Feet Dry!: Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Indications and Warning in Austere Environments

    To increase technology’s capabilities and how it can be used requires innovation. Identifying how to fit emerging technology into the mission construct can be viewed as limiting; however, there has to be a starting point. The fictional vignette illustrates how such innovation might play out in our future.
  • The Case for Missile Defense and an Efficient Defense of the US Homeland

    In May 2019, the Pentagon first announced a pause on the years-long troubled efforts to redesign the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) of the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system’s interceptors. Since 2004, the GMD system’s mission is to defend the United States from ballistic missile threats. The EKV is a sensor-propulsion package that uses the kinetic energy from a direct collision with an enemy’s missile warhead to destroy its target. By August 2019, the Pentagon made the surprise decision to completely cancel the so-called Redesigned Kill Vehicle program of the GMD system. For many, the decision represented an inflection point for homeland missile defense in its entirety.
  • What Exactly is Venture Capital, and What Does It Have to Do with the Air Force?

    The initial cohort of AFVentures fellows recently finished their six-week immersion in Silicon Valley. This article outlines that experience and the lessons applicable to the Air Force writ large.
  • Reorganizing Missile Security at Malmstrom AFB: 341st Security Forces Group and the Missile Security Operating Concept

    From August 2017 through January 2019, the 341st Security Forces Group (341st SFG) planned and executed an internal reorganization of its missile security forces called the Missile Security Operating Concept (MSOC). By standing up the 841st Missile Security Forces Squadron (841st MSFS) and creating three identical squadrons out of the 341st Missile Security Forces Squadron and the 741st Missile Security Forces Squadron, each unit would deploy to the missile field under one commander’s control. This reorganization sought to make its defenders more effective and improve group morale. The 341 st SFG’s successful transition to MSOC required it to plan a 21-day schedule to provide its defenders a work/life balance, incorporate the Integrated Planning Cell into missile security operations to maximize missile field operational efficiency through long-range planning, and create a Troop Leading Procedures course to train its noncommissioned officers to lead their Airmen. At the squadron level, the 841 st MSFS faced some unique challenges. Given MSOC’s bottom-up planning, its commander had to operate without a clear legal authority to do so and build its Unit unit Manpower manpower Document document from scratch. While MSOC had a rocky start, both leaders and Airmen on-the-ground resolved those initial problems and believed it improved morale and made its defenders more lethal. In short, it worked. The lessons learned from this study provides a template for any group-level unit to plan and execute its own internal reorganization.

More Viewpoints


  • Why Did Beijing Decide to Apply the Security Law to Hong Kong Now?

    The passage of the new Hong Kong national security law probably is the most significant political change that has taken place since Britain transferred Hong Kong to China. Therefore, it is hard to ignore the timing in which China chose to declare the new law—a time when the entire world is confronted with the COVID-19 pandemic that began in China at the end of 2019. It is also a time at which China is involved in border struggles with India, Bhutan, Russia, and others and, above all, engaged in a seemingly ever-growing struggle or impending war with the United States for global hegemony. What led China to make this dramatic move at this time?
  • Understanding and Challenging “The Digital Air Force” USAF White Paper

    This short article is an examination, constructive critique, and epilogue to “The Digital Air Force” USAF White Paper. The article characterizes the white paper in terms of where it falls in a traditional stratification of guidance documents, categorizes the white paper in terms of international relations theory and philosophy, identifies and challenges four key assumptions, and concludes by suggesting that the paper’s most important contribution is in its implied meaning for global warning intelligence.
  • On Early Air Combat in Southeast Asia: After Wingate’s Fortitude Eclipsed Mountbatten’s Folly

    Generals and admirals bring prior credibility to conferences. Insignia of rank demonstrate authority; rows of ribbons denote extensive service if not valor; and reputations for previous sound decisions (or lack thereof) may affect listeners. Some credibility, however, is enhanced by their speaking during those meetings. At Quadrant, British general Orde Wingate exemplified such impress.
  • Issues with the Integration of Space and Terrestrial Military Operations

    When was the last time the air war was in doubt for the United States? Maybe in the early days of World War II, almost 80 years ago. Since then we have produced many generations of military leaders who are far too accustomed to winning wars and doing things the good old way. Space is too new a conflict environment for lazy thinking about how to conduct decisive warfare.
  • Posse Comitatus in Space: Forging a Relationship between the US Space Force and Law Enforcement

    As the Department of Defense continues its stand up of the US Space Force (USSF), Congress must draft legislation similar to that pertaining to the USCG to allow local law enforcement agencies to use USSF assets, specifically surveillance satellites, in their investigations and reconnaissance. With the increase in commercial space operations and advancement of technology we see every day, the USSF will need the flexibility to enforce laws in space as well as help law enforcement agencies from space with its assets in place.

More Commentaries

Connect with WBY

Facebook Twitter
"Why Did Beijing Decide to Apply the Security Law to Hong Kong Now?" by @RYellinek #HongKong #HongKongProtests… https://t.co/jX51CCNM6E
RT @Journal_INDOPAC: "Combat aviator brings deep Asia ties to new role as PACAF commander," @WyattwOlson @starsandstripes Gen Kenneth Wilsb…
RT @CenterEastern: The Battle Is Almost Lost: China’s Industrial Challenge to European Shipbuilding, by Liselotte Odgaard @WBY_Journal #Ch
Understanding and Challenging “The Digital Air Force” USAF White Paper, by Maj John Biszko, USAF @usairforcehttps://t.co/qjabbYjO7y
A Primer on US Civil–Military Relations for National Security Practitioners, by Dr. @jblankshain #NationalSecurityhttps://t.co/aYhJuw9rRL
RT @jblankshain: New from me @WBY_Journal "A Primer on US Civil–Military Relations for National Security Practitioners" https://t.co/OS2xZS…
Posse Comitatus in Space, by Capt Glenn Germany, USSF As DoD continues to stand up @SpaceForceDoD , Congress must d… https://t.co/zW5VeDGAoO
@PAOhasnoname Right in line with the findings of the Electromagnetic Defense Task Force in 2018: #EDTF #EMPhttps://t.co/jyJt3YEoJY
RT @Journal_INDOPAC: Collaborating w/ PACAF A58 Strategic Competition Team, we are publishing a special digital-only issue, feat. articles…
China Has ‘First-Strike’ Capability To Melt US Power Grid w/ EMP Weapon, @JimConca #EMP #China #FirstStrike https://t.co/iXolbdEUCF
RT @SpaceForceDoD: Col. Eric Felt, director of the @AFResearchLab's Space Vehicles Directorate, recently spoke about a variety of topics in…
RT @J_EMEAA: USAFA prof. Jeff Biller's review of Two Centuries of US Military Operations in Liberia: Challenges of Resistance and Complianc…
Force Posturing and the Contemporary Security Environment: Options for Industrially Dependent Countries, by Air Com… https://t.co/yX8VHJrC2w
RT @kylecferrier: #COVID19 has exposed key shortcomings in the U.S. Indo-Pacific strategy. In a new paper for @Journal_INDOPAC, I argue why…
Issues with the Integration of Space and Terrestrial Military Operations, by Paul Szymanski: Space is too new a con… https://t.co/jD55sBteSy
RT @J_EMEAA: Trump Is Right about Europe, by Dr. Amit Gupta Europe can still be relevant, if the US views it not as a military partner to e…
RT @Journal_INDOPAC: Is the time right for an Indo-US alliance? Many signs seem to indicate it is. @jppjagannath1 makes a well-balanced arg…
Future Military Space, by Maj Justin Deifel; Maj Nicholas Somerman; & Maj Mark Thieme. New space systems must be de… https://t.co/OGQCWnRTZT
So Just What Is a Killer Robot?, by Dr. @AustinJWyatt, compare competing definitions of what ought to be considered… https://t.co/z6eQDfwgZS
RT @Journal_INDOPAC: Comparing Space Sectors Down Underm by @NBorroz This article highlights how New Zealand’s & Australia’s space sectors…

Visit Other Air University Press Journals

The views and opinions expressed or implied in Wild Blue Yonder are those of the authors and should not be construed as carrying the official sanction of the United States Air Force, the Department of Defense, Air Education and Training Command, Air University, or other agencies or departments of the US government or their international equivalents. ISSN 2689-6478