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Tag: China
  • In for the ‘Soft’ Kill? The People’s Liberation Army’s Discussion of U.S. Offensive Space Capabilities

    The U.S. “Defense Space Strategy” summary, released 17 June 2020, outlines the U.S. objective of space superiority and identifies space as “a distinct warfighting domain.”1 On 9 March 2020, the “first offensive weapon system in the United States Space Force (USSF), the Counter Communications System Block 10.2 (CCS B10.2), achieved Initial
  • China and the Moon

    On January 4 2019, China became the first nation in the world to land a spacecraft on the far side of the Moon. The Chinese said that this accomplishment was not motivated by an imaginary “Asia space race,” or to obtain bragging rights in the international space community. The China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) is a carefully formulated series
  • China’s Air Force Preparing for Contingencies in the Skies Over Ladakh

         Although current clashes along the Line of Actual Control between India and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) are contained to hand-to-hand fighting as of mid-June 2020, the death of several dozen soldiers on 15 June reveals the potential for the skirmish to escalate in scale. As Indian and PRC soldiers continue to clash along the border,
  • China Achieves Full Global Satellite Coverage

    On 23 June 2020, China launched the final satellite from its Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) to be part of the BeiDou-3 constellation. The liftoff took place at 09:43 local time using a Long March-3 rocket as the launch vehicle. This marks the final piece in China’s first true Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). For over 60 years,
  • Chinese Aerospace Along the Belt and Road

    One of Xi Jinping’s global projects to make the China Dream a reality is the “一带一路/ One-Belt One-Road” project, since rebranded in English as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).  This initiative has evolved from a trade and infrastructure plan involving a handful of countries residing along ancient and modern trade routes to a multi-trillion-dollar
  • China's Military-Civil Fusion Strategy

    Military-Civil Fusion (MCF), this term seems like a counterpart to the American term civil-military integration (CMI), but in reality it is far deeper and more complex. Whereas, according to the U.S. Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, America’s CMI is “cooperation between government and commercial facilities in research and development (R&D), manufacturing, and/or maintenance operations”, China’s Military-Civil Fusion strategy is a state-led, state-directed program and plan 
    to leverage all levers of state and commercial power to strengthen and support the armed wing of the Communist Party of China, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

    China’s Military-Civil Fusion program is not new. Every leader since Mao Zedong has had a program to compel the “commercial” and “civil” parts of Chinese society to support the PLA. It has gone by different terms, Military-Civil Integration, Military-Civil Fused Development, etc. General Secretary Xi Jinping has elevated the concept to Military-Civil Fusion. But is all cases, it is the “Military” that comes first. Whereas in the United States there is a partnership for spin-off and spin-on technologies, with a goal of assisting commercial companies as well as the military, this is simply a happy coincidence when, and if, it happens in China.

    Since Xi Jinping’s assumption of power, the role of the military, and the importance of MCF have markedly increased. General Secretary Xi has clearly switched the emphasis from Deng Xiaoping’s famous statement. While most remember the first part of Deng’s saying, “韬光养晦”, which is generally translated to “bide your time, and hide your capabilities”, most Americans, and westerners, seem to forget there was more in his dictum. The full quote is: “冷静观察, 稳住阵脚, 沉着应付, 韬光养晦, 善于守拙, 决不当头, 有所作为”  It is the last four characters that now seem to have the emphasis, loosely translated- and achieve some goals/ get something done. This explains China’s growing assertiveness and emphasis on the final piece of Deng Xiaoping’s “Four Modernizations”, the military.

    To date, most surveys and analysis of MCF have focused on concrete examples, of how it is or is not working. These are important aspects to understand and study. However, what this report does is focus on how Military- Civil Fusion fits in to the CCP’s and the PRC’s overall national strategy; how it fits in with the other pieces which the CCP uses to guide the development path of the PRC; and rather than “looking down” to focus on the implementation of the program, but rather to “look up” to the strategies and policies that form the connective tissues within the greater system.

    This report is intended for both policy makers and practitioners, to help them better understand how MCF is intrinsically linked to the other national strategic-level programs in China, and help them better compete in the long-term by understanding the nature of the system with which we are competing.

    Dr. Brendan S. Mulvaney
    Director, China Aerospace Studies Institute

  • "Private" Chinese Aerospace Defense Companies

         As the United States continues it shift away from the Post 9-11 era toward the era of Great Power Strategic Competition, it is important to understand with whom we are competing and the manner in which they are competing with us. Too often, we view things only though our own ‘lens’ and forget to look at how our competitors see the world and organize within it.

  • Chinese Aerospace Along the Belt and Road

         One of Xi Jinping’s global projects to make the China Dream a reality is the “一带一路/ One-Belt One-Road” project, since rebranded in English as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). This initiative has evolved from a trade and infrastructure plan involving a handful of countries residing along ancient and modern trade routes to a
  • The People’s Liberation Army’s Academic Institutions

    The basis for any military is education and training. Without this foundation, we would just be armed groups of men, marauding our local areas. Education and training allow tactics, techniques, and procedures to be transmitted as lessons learned from one generation to the next. These eventually form the basis for the doctrine and strategy that guides modern militaries. To this end, CASI was tasked with investigating the academic system of the Chinese Communist Party’s People’s Liberation Army.

    The PLA’s academic system has undergone a number of transformations through its history, not least of which occurred as a result of the 2015/16 PLA reforms. Each reform reveals how the PLA and the Communist Party view the world at the time, and where they need to place emphasis on educating their armed wing. This round of reforms is no different. 

  • The People in the PLA 2.0

    Currently under revisionIntroducing the 2018 edition of the continuing series on the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) by the US Army War College Strategic Studies Institute, the National Bureau of Asian Research, and US Indo-Pacific Command is my distinct pleasure. This volume, The People in the PLA 2.0, is a sequel of sorts to the 2008
  • China’s Military Strategy White Papers

      2015 China's Military Strategy  The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China This copy has both the Mandarin and the English together, broken by paragraphs. 2015 White Paper-Eng and Ch.pdf    2010 China Defense White Paper The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic
  • China plans to launch rockets into space from massive freighters and planes

     Full article and graphics: https://www.popsci.com/chinese-space-rockets-launch-air-seaThe country wants to become a space superpower.LONG MARCH 11Thanks to its solid-fueled engine, the Long March 11 can be stored for a long time in a ready-to-fire mode.WeiboChina's land-based Long March space launch rockets have been the backbone of its space